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CTIS 154 Discrete Mathematics II1 8.2 Paths and Cycles Kadir A. Peker

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2 Path Let v 0 and v n be vertices in a graph. A path from v 0 to v n is an alternating sequence of n+1 vertices and n edges beginning with vertex v 0 and ending with vertex v n, (v 0, e 1, v 1, e 2,..., e n, v n ), in which edge e i is incident on vertices v i-1 and v i for i =1,..., n. Note Can visit same vertex multiple times Can have only one vertex => length = 0 If there are no parallel edges, can list the vertices only.

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3 Subgraphs and components A graph G is connected if given any vertices v and w in G, there is a path from v to w. Let G=(V,E) be a graph. We call G’=(V’,E’) a subgraph of G if V’ V and E’ E. For every edge e’ E’, if e’ is incident on v’ and w’, then v’,w’ V’. Let G be a graph and let v be a vertex in G. The subgraph G’ of G consisting of all edges and vertices in G that are contained in some path beginning at v is called the component of G containing v. A connected graph has one component

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4 Paths and cycles A simple path from v to w is a path from v to w with no repeated vertices. A cycle (or circuit) is a path of nonzero length from v to v with no repeated edges. A simple cycle is a cycle from v to v in which there are no repeated vertices (except for the beginning and ending vertex v).

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5 Euler cycle A cycle in a graph G that includes all of the edges and all of the vertices of G is called an Euler cycle. Theorem: If a graph G has an Euler cycle, then G is connected and every vertex has even degree. Theorem: If G is a connected graph and every vertex has even degree, then G has an Euler cycle.

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6 Degrees Theorem: If G is a graph with m edges and vertices {v 1, v 2,..., v n }, then sum (deg(v i )) = 2 m Corollary: In any graph, there are an even number of vertices of odd degree. Theorem: A graph has a path with no repeated edges from v to w (v≠w) containing all the edges and vertices if and only if it is connected and v and w are the only vertices having odd degree. Theorem: If a graph G contains a cycle from v to v, G contains a simple cycle from v to v.

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