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Introduction to Programming

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1 Introduction to Programming
Chapter One Introduction to Programming

2 Objectives You should be able to describe: Introduction to Programming
Function and Class Names The cout object Programming Style Common Programming Errors

3 History of C++ C++ began as extension to C, which is procedural language developed in the 1970s at AT&T Bell Laboratories In early 1980s, Bjarne Stroustrup (also at AT&T) used his background in simulation languages to develop C++ Object-orientation and other procedural improvements were combined with existing C language features to form C++

4 Introduction to Programming
Computer program: Data and instructions used to operate a computer Programming: Writing computer program in a language that the computer can respond to and that other programmers can understand Programming language: Set of instructions, data, and rules used to construct a program High-level languages use human language type instructions Low-level languages use instructions tied to a computer type

5 Procedural Programming Languages
Instructions are used to create self-contained units (procedures) Procedures accept data as input and transform data to produce a specific result as an output Initially, high-level programming languages were predominately procedural

6 Procedure-Oriented Programs
Most high-level programs process data to produce one or more results Procedural programs are constructed from sets of instructions, with each set called a procedure Each procedure moves the data one step closer to the final desired output

7 Procedure-Oriented Programs (continued)

8 Object-Oriented Languages
Allow for procedural instructions and for definitions of objects to be manipulated Such definitions include: The general characteristics of objects Specific operations to manipulate objects C++ is an object-oriented language Has procedures and objects Supports code reuse

9 Programming Programming=represent information + process information

10 Information Data classified as different types Numeric data Logic data
Characters and sentences

11 Information representation
Factorize information Some are constants, some are variables. Information decomposition Information type identification

12 Information processing
Operations simple statements using supported operators Compound statements by combining supported operations

13 Algorithms and Procedures
Before writing a program, a programmer must clearly understand What data is to be used Desired result Procedure needed to produce this result The procedure is referred to as an algorithm Algorithm: Step-by-step sequence of instructions describing how to perform a computation

14 Example of an Algorithm
Assume that a program must calculate sum of all whole numbers from 1 through 100 A computer can not respond to heuristic command: “Add the numbers from ” A computer is algorithm-responding machine and not intuition-responding machine Several methods or algorithms can be used to find the required sum

15 Example of an Algorithm (continued)
Sum = n(a + b)/2 Where n = number of terms to be added (100) a = first number added (1) b = last number to be added (100) Sum = 100( )/2 = 5050 Figure 1.2: Summing the Numbers from 1 through Method 3. Formula - Use the formula Sum = n(a + b)/2 = 5050

16 Flowcharting

17 Flowcharting

18 Flowchart Example

19 Classes and Objects Data Object: Set of values packaged as single unit
Class: Set of objects with similar attributes General concept of object-oriented programming is difference between an object and the larger set of which it is a member (class) A red, Ford Taurus sedan is an instance, or object, of general class of automobiles

20 Program Translation C++ source program: Set of instructions written in C++ language Machine language: Internal computer language Consists of a series of 1s and 0s Source program cannot be executed until it is translated into machine language Interpreted language translates one statement at a time Compiled language translates all statements together

21 Program Translation (continued)

22 Function and Class Names
Modular programs: Segments arranged in logical order to form an integrated unit Module: Segments of modular program Function: Name of a C++ procedure Composed of sequence of C++ instructions Function interface is its inputs and outputs Method of converting input to results is encapsulated and hidden within function

23 Function and Class Names (continued)

24 Function and Class Names (continued)

25 Function and Class Naming Conventions
Identifiers: Names that convey an idea of the purpose of function or class Identifier composition rules: (read page 15) First character must be a letter or underscore Only letter, digit or underscore may follow Blank spaces NOT allowed Identify component words with initial capitalization Cannot be C++ keyword Should be a mnemonic

26 Tokens are basic building blocks of C/C++ programming.
In a C/C++ source program, the basic element recognized by the compiler is the "token.“. A token is source-program text that the compiler does not further break down into component elements.

27 tokens keyword identifier Constant number string-literal operator
Punctuator (special symbol) Punctuation characters such as brackets ([ ]), braces ({ }), parentheses ( ( ) ), and commas (,) are also tokens.


29 Literals (constants) A literal is a notation for representing a value within source code. Literal constants (often referred to as literals or constants as apposed to symbolic constant identifiers) are invariants whose values are implied by their representations. A letter or symbol that stands for itself as opposed to a feature, function, or entity associated with it in a programming language: + can be a symbol that refers to add operator, but as a literal, it is a ‘+’ character, as it is.

30 Literal numbers: Literal strings: “Obama”, “Bush”, "hello”
Literal characters 'b', 'c' (character) Literal integers: 14 Literal doubles: 3.1 (default double) 3.1l(double) 3.1f (float) 18.46e1 (scientific notation) We call the f in 3.1f the suffix modifier. The type of a literal is thus determined from its syntactic form.

31 operators C/C++ operators can be used to manipulate Variables and constants using complex expressions. In C++, operators can be overloaded and their meanings can be user-defined. However, their precedence and the number of operands they take cannot be modified. At minimum we need to be aware of the syntax and semantics of operators as they are supplied with the language, not overloaded.

32 Punctuators (special symbols)
Punctuators in C++ have syntactic and semantic meaning to the compiler but do not, of themselves, specify an operation that yields a value. Some punctuators, either alone or in combination, can also be C++ operators or be significant to the preprocessor. Any of the following characters are considered punctuators: ! % ^ & * ( ) – + = { } | ~ [ ] \ ; ' : " < > ? , . / # The punctuators [ ], ( ), and { } must appear in pairs

33 C++ Keywords

34 Fundamental data types
When programming, we store the variables in our computer's memory, but the computer has to know what kind of data we want to store in them, since it is not going to occupy the same amount of memory to store a simple number than to store a single letter or a large number, and they are not going to be interpreted the same way. A data type or datatype defines kind of data, the size of memory occupied, a set of possible values, the range, as well as basic operations on those values. The memory in our computers is organized in bytes. A byte is the basic unit, the minimum amount, that can be manipulated in memory. A byte can store a relatively small amount of data: one single character or a small integer (generally an integer between 0 and 255). In addition, the computer can manipulate more complex data types that come from grouping several bytes, such as long numbers or non-integer numbers.

35 Built-in data types as well as the range of values that can be represented
name description Size Range char Character or small integer 1 byte Signed: -128 to 127 Unsigned: 0 to 255 Short int Short integer 2 bytes Signed: to 32767 Unsigned: 0 to 65535 int Integer 4 bytes Signed: to Unsigned: 0 to bool Boolean value. It can take one of two values: true or false 1 byte (though only 1 bit is needed) Ture or false (1 or 0) float Floating point number +/- 3.4e+/-38 (~7 digits) double Double precision floating point number 8 bytes +/-1.7e+/-308(~15 digits)

36 C++ Identifiers Examples of valid identifiers: grosspay taxCalc
addNums degToRad multByTwo salesTax netPay bessel Usually identifiers are used to name variables, constant symbols, functions, labels etc.

37 C++ Identifiers (continued)
Examples of invalid identifiers: 4ab3 (begins with a number) e*6 (contains a special character) while (is a keyword)

38 variables A variable in computer source code is a data storage space located somewhere in memory. It is identified by a name. A variable’s name won’t change, so we can program with respect to the name. But the content in the space represented by the name is changeable. Generally the value change during the course of program execution.

39 variables A variable in C++ must be declared (the type of variable) and defined (values assigned to a variable) before it can be used in a program

40 Expressions Expressions are sequences of operators and operands that are used for one or more of these purposes: Computing a value from the operands. Designating objects or functions. types of expressions semantics of expressions

41 Soul of your program Input and output support allow your program interactive Variables make your program reusable without recompiling your program Expressions make your program intelligent. Variables +expressions = soul of your program

42 Types of expressions C++ expressions are divided into several categories: Primary expressions. These are the building blocks from which all other expressions are formed. Postfix expressions. These are primary expressions followed by an operator — for example, the array subscript or postfix increment operator. Expressions formed with unary operators. Unary operators act on only one operand in an expression. Expressions formed with binary operators. Binary operators act on two operands in an expression. Expressions with the conditional operator. The conditional operator is a ternary operator — the only such operator in the C++ language — and takes three operands. Constant expressions. Constant expressions are formed entirely of constant data. Expressions with explicit type conversions. Explicit type conversions, or "casts," can be used in expressions. Expressions with pointer-to-member operators. Casting. Type-safe "casts" can be used in expressions. Run-Time Type Information. Determine the type of an object during program execution.

43 Semantics of Expressions
Order of evaluation Sequence points Ambiguous expressions Notation in expressions Side effects

44 The main Function Each C+ program must have one and only one function named main Called a driver function because it drives the other modules

45 The main Function (continued)

46 The main Function (continued)
First line of function is called header line What type of data, if any, is returned from function The name of function What type of data, if any, is sent into function Data transmitted into function at run time are referred to as arguments of function

47 main Function Composition

48 The cout Object The cout object sends data to the standard output display device The display device is usually a video screen Name derived from Console OUTput and pronounced “see out” Data is passed to cout by the insertion symbol cout << “Hello there, World!”;

49 C++ Sample Code using cout

50 Newline Escape Sequence
Instructs the display device to move to a new line A newline caused when the characters backslash \ and n are used together Backslash provides an “escape” from the normal interpretation of the character that follows Newline escape sequences can be placed anywhere within a message to cout

51 Preprocessor Command Performs an action before the compiler translates source code to machine code An example is: #include <iostream> Causes the iostream file to be inserted wherever the #include command appears iostream is part of the C++ standard library Included in iostream are two important classes: istream: Declarations and methods for data input ostream: Declarations and methods for data output

52 Namespaces Files accessed by compiler when looking for prewritten classes or functions Sample namespace statement: using namespace std; iostream contained in a namespace called std Compiler uses iostream’s cout object from std whenever cout is referenced

53 More C++ Sample Code

54 More C++ Sample Code (continued)

55 Syntax The set of rules for formulating grammatically correct C++ language statements Compiler accepts statements with correct syntax without generating error message A program statement can syntactically correct and logically incorrect Compiler will accept statement Program will produce incorrect results

56 Programming Style Every C++ program must contain one and only one main() function Statements included within braces { } C++ allows flexibility in format for the word main, the parentheses ( ), and braces { } More than one statement can be put on line One statement can be written across lines Use formatting for clarity and ease of program reading

57 Standard C++ Program Form
Function name starts in column 1 Name and parentheses on their own line Opening brace of function body on next line Aligned with first letter of function name Closing brace is last line of function Aligned with opening brace Standard form highlights the function as a unit

58 Standard C++ Program Form (continued)
Within function, indent statements 2-3 spaces Creates uniform look for similar statement groups Good programming practice Final program form should be consistent Proper format improves program readability and understandability

59 Poor Program Format

60 Proper Program Format

61 Statements C/C++ Program is made up of statements.
A statement consists of zero or more tokens, and always end with a ;. Every statement in your program alone or in combination specifies an action to performed by your program. C/C++ provides variety of types of statements to help you attain any function with maximum flexibility and efficiency. One of the reason for popularity of C/C++ is because of the extreme power provided to programmer in C due to it rich and diverse set of statements define in C/C++. declaration statement Assignment statement if - else Statement switch Statement For statment while Statement do Statement return Statment goto Statement break Statement Continue statement Expressions Statement Block Statement

62 Comments Explanatory remarks written within program
Clarify purpose of the program Describe objective of a group of statements Explain function of a single line of code Computer ignores all comments Comments exist only for convenience of reader A well-constructed program should be readable and understandable Comments help explain unclear components

63 Comment structure Line comment: Begins with 2 slashes(//) and continues to the end of the line Can be written on line by itself or at the end of line that contains program code // this is a line comment Block comment: Multiple line comment begins with the symbols /* and ends with the symbols */ /* This is a block comment that spans across three lines */

64 Common Programming Errors
Omitting parentheses after main Omitting or incorrectly typing the opening brace { Opening brace signifies start of function body Omitting or incorrectly typing the closing brace } Closing brace signifies end of function Misspelling the name of an object or function Example: Typing cot instead of cout

65 Common Programming Errors (continued)
Forgetting to close a string sent to cout with a double-quote symbol Omitting the semicolon at the end of each statement Forgetting \n to indicate a new line

66 Sequential program flow
Without flow control statements, the program you wrote executes sequentially, one statement after another.

67 Case sensitive ‘A’ and ‘a’ are different.

68 Summary A C++ program consists of one or more modules
One module must be the function main() main() is starting point of C++ program The simplest C++ program has the form: #include <iostream> using namespaces std; int main() { program statements; return 0; }

69 Summary (continued) C++ statements are terminated by a semicolon
Standard library contains many functions and classes Standard Library provided with C++ compiler Includes <iostream> for input and output cout object displays text or numeric results Stream of characters is sent to cout by: Enclosing characters in double quotes Using the insertion (“put to”) operator, <<

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