ECOSYSTEMS & HUMAN INTERFERENCES II. Carbonification The destruction of vegetation & burning of fossils are main factors in increasing carbon in the.
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Carbonification The destruction of vegetation & burning of fossils are main factors in increasing carbon in the atmosphere Carbon Cycle
Greenhouse Gasses & Global Warming Greenhouse effect: reradiation of solar heat toward the earth caused by certain gasses Human activities increased the concentration of these greenhouse gasses: CO 2 : from burning of fossil fuels & wood Nitrous oxide (N 2 O): fertilizers & animal wastes Methane (CH 4 ) : oil and gas wells, rice paddies
Acid Rain It is caused by increased levels of Nitrogen oxides (NO x ) & (SO 2 ) Negative effects of acid rain: Destroy forests Pollute water Reduce agricultural yield Increase erosion Health hazard to human (O 3 from HC and NO x )
Combustion of fossil fuels is the main cause of acid rain The burning of fossil fuels releases sulfur oxides and nitrogen that react with water in the atmosphere to produce sulfuric and nitric acids. Field pH 5.3 5.2–5.3 5.1–5.2 5.0–5.1 4.9–5.0 4.8–4.9 4.7–4.8 4.6–4.7 4.5–4.6 4.4–4.5 4.3–4.4 4.3 Average pH in 2002
Toxins produced by human can accumulate in the fatty tissues of animals. They become more concentrated in successive trophic levels biological magnification. Hazard Waste
Nitrogen Cycle Also, fertilizers and lightening add nitrogen to soil
Eutrophication Runoff containing high phosphate & nitrogen (Fertilizers) Results in (algal bloom). Leads to massive death of aquatic organisms.
Lake Neatahwanta, Fulton, NY The Post-Standard, June 4, 2004: Lake algae may be Killing Animals
Human activities & ozone O 3, or ozone protects us from (UV) Ozone layer has been gradually “thinning” since 1975 Due to use of chlorofluorocarbons, chemicals used in refrigeration and aerosol cans (a) October 1979 (b) October 2000