Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Prentice Hall, 2002 1 Chapter 1 Overview of Electronic Commerce.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Prentice Hall, 2002 1 Chapter 1 Overview of Electronic Commerce."— Presentation transcript:

1 Prentice Hall, 2002 1 Chapter 1 Overview of Electronic Commerce

2 Prentice Hall, 2002 2 Learning Objectives Define electronic commerce (EC) and describe its various categories Distinguish between electronic markets and interorganizational systems Describe and discuss the content and framework of EC

3 Prentice Hall, 2002 3 Learning Objectives (cont.) Understand the forces that drive the widespread use of EC Describe the benefits of EC to organizations, consumers, and society Describe the limitations of EC Discuss some major managerial issues regarding EC

4 Prentice Hall, 2002 4 Opening Vignette: Qantas Airways Business-to-business (B2B) E-marketplace member Business-to-customer (B2C): Online booking & wireless communications Business-to-employee (B2E): Online training & banking

5 Prentice Hall, 2002 5 Qantas Airways (cont.) Business-to- business (B2B) E-marketplace member Joined Airnew Co.— links major airlines with suppliers Fuel Fuel services Light maintenance services Catering

6 Prentice Hall, 2002 6 Qantas Airways (cont.) Business-to-customer (B2C): Online booking Wireless communications

7 Prentice Hall, 2002 7 Qantas Airways (cont.) Business-to-employee (B2E): Online training Online banking

8 Prentice Hall, 2002 8 Definitions Business-to-business (B2B) Businesses make online transactions purchases with other business Business-to-consumer (B2C) Online transactions between businesses and consumers Business-to-employee (B2E) Information and services made available to employees online

9 Prentice Hall, 2002 9 Electronic Commerce Terms EC – process of buying, selling, or exchanging products, services or information via computer networks. EC defined from these perspectives Communications Business process Service Online Collaborations Community

10 Prentice Hall, 2002 10 Electronic Commerce Terms (cont.) E-business- refers to not just buying and selling of goods and services, but also servicing customers, collaborating with business partners, and and conducting electronic transactions within an organization. EC defined from these perspectives Communications Business process Service Online Collaborations Community

11 Prentice Hall, 2002 11 Electronic Commerce Terms (cont.) Pure vs. Partial EC: based on the degree of digitization of Product Process Delivery agent Traditional commerce: all dimensions are physical Pure EC: all dimensions are digital Partial EC: all other possibilities include a mix of digital and physical dimensions

12 Prentice Hall, 2002 12 Electronic Commerce Terms (cont.) Internet vs. Non-Internet EC VANs VAN is also an acronym for virtual area network. A value-added network (VAN) is a private network provider (sometimes called a turnkey communications line) that is hired by a company to facilitate electronic data interchange (EDI) or provide other network services. Before the arrival of the World Wide Web, some companies hired VANS to move data from their company to other companies.virtual area networkEDI

13 Prentice Hall, 2002 13 Electronic Commerce Terms (cont.) Internet vs. Non-Internet EC LANs Lan is also an acronym for Local Area Network. It may refer to one or machine which is engaged in the exchange of electronic data. Ex. Office network, or even a Smart Card vending machine.Local Area Network

14 Prentice Hall, 2002 14 Electronic Commerce Terms (cont.) Internet vs. Non-Internet EC Click and Mortar Primary business is offline, with only some e- commerce activities

15 Prentice Hall, 2002 15 Figure 1-1 The Dimensions of Electronic Commerce Source: Choi et al. (1997), p. 18.

16 Prentice Hall, 2002 16 A method of doing business by which a company can generate revenue to sustain itself. Examples: Name your price Find the best price Dynamic brokering Affiliate marketing Business Models

17 Prentice Hall, 2002 17 Business Models (cont.) Group purchasing Electronic tendering systems Online auctions Customization and personalization Electronic marketplaces and exchanges Supply chain improvers Collaborative commerce

18 Prentice Hall, 2002 18 Business Models (cont.) Orbis Corporation

19 Prentice Hall, 2002 19 Business Models (cont.) Orbis Corporation

20 Prentice Hall, 2002 20 A market is a network of interactions and relationships where information, products, services, and payments are exchanged. It handles all the necessary transactions It is a place where shoppers and sellers meet electronically Sellers and buyers negotiate, submit bids, agree on an order, and finish the execution on- or off-line Electronic Markets (E-marketplaces or E-marketspaces)

21 Prentice Hall, 2002 21 Figure 1-2 Transactions in Electronic Markets

22 Prentice Hall, 2002 22 Electronic Exchanges Electronic exchanges provide dynamic pricing by matching real-time supply and demand Live auctions Stock exchanges

23 Prentice Hall, 2002 23 Interorganizational information system (IOS) involves information flow among two or more organizations Major objective is efficient routine transaction processing, such as transmitting orders, bills, and payments using EDI or extranets Scope: Unified system encompassing two or several business partners Typical IOS includes a company, its suppliers, and and/or customers Interorganization Information Systems

24 Prentice Hall, 2002 24 Figure 1-3 A Framework for Electronic Commerce

25 Prentice Hall, 2002 25 Marketing Computer sciences Consumer behavior and psychology Finance Economics Management information systems Accounting and auditing Management Business law and ethics Others Electronic Commerce is Interdisciplinary

26 Prentice Hall, 2002 26 The Driving Forces of Electronic Commerce The New World of Business Business pressures Organizational responses The role of Information Technology (including electronic commerce)

27 Prentice Hall, 2002 27 Major Business Pressures Market and economic pressures Strong competition Global economy Regional trade agreements (e.g. NAFTA) Extremely low labor cost in some countries Frequent and significant changes in markets Increased power of consumers

28 Prentice Hall, 2002 28 Major Business Pressures (cont.) Societal and environmental pressures Changing nature of workforce Government deregulation of banking and other services Shrinking government subsidies Increased importance of ethical and legal issues Increased social responsibility of organizations Rapid political changes

29 Prentice Hall, 2002 29 Major Business Pressures (cont.) Technological pressures Rapid technological obsolescence Increase innovations and new technologies Information overload Rapid decline in technology cost vs. performance ratio

30 Prentice Hall, 2002 30 Organizational Responses Strategic systems Continuous improvement efforts Business process reengineering (BPR) Business Alliances Electronic commerce

31 Organizational Responses Framework for Organizational and Societal Impacts of Information Technology Management and Business Process Organization Structure and the Corporate Culture Individual and Roles Information Technology The Organization’s Strategy External Environment, Social, Economic, Political, etc

32 Prentice Hall, 2002 32 Reducing cycle time and time to market Empowerment of employees and collaborative work Supply chain improvements Mass customization Change management IT Support and EC

33 Prentice Hall, 2002 33 The Benefits of EC Benefits to Organizations Expands the marketplace to national and international markets Decreases the cost of creating, processing, distributing, storing and retrieving paper- based information

34 Prentice Hall, 2002 34 Benefits of EC (cont.) Benefits to Organizations (cont.) Allows reduced inventories and overhead by facilitating pull-type supply chain management The pull-type processing allows for customization of products and services which provides competitive advantage to its implementers

35 Prentice Hall, 2002 35 Benefits of EC (cont.) Benefits to Organizations (cont.) Reduces the time between the outlay of capital and the receipt of products and services Supports business processes reengineering (BPR) efforts Lowers telecommunications cost - the Internet is much cheaper than value added networks (VANs)

36 Prentice Hall, 2002 36 Benefits of EC (cont.) Benefits to consumers Enables consumers to shop or do other transactions 24 hours a day, all year round from almost any location Provides consumers with more choices Provides consumers with less expensive products and services by allowing them to shop in many places and conduct quick comparisons

37 Prentice Hall, 2002 37 Benefits of EC (cont.) Benefits to consumers (cont.) Allows quick delivery of products and services (in some cases) especially with digitized products Consumers can receive relevant and detailed information in seconds, rather than in days or weeks Makes it possible to participate in virtual auctions

38 Prentice Hall, 2002 38 Benefits of EC (cont.) Benefits to consumers (cont.) Allows consumers to interact with other consumers n electronic communities and exchange ideas as well as compare experiences Facilitates competition, which results in substantial discounts

39 Prentice Hall, 2002 39 Benefits of EC (cont.) Benefits to society Enables more individuals to work at home, and to do less traveling for shopping, resulting in less traffic on the roads, and lower air pollution Allows some merchandise to be sold at lower prices benefiting less affluent people

40 Prentice Hall, 2002 40 Benefits of EC (cont.) Benefits to society (cont.) Enables people in Third World countries and rural areas to enjoy products and services which otherwise are not available to them Facilitates delivery of public services at a reduced cost, increases effectiveness, and/or improves quality

41 Prentice Hall, 2002 41 The Limitations of EC Technical limitations of electronic commerce Lack of sufficient system’s security, reliability, standards, and communication protocols Insufficient telecommunication bandwidth The software development tools are still evolving and changing rapidly

42 Prentice Hall, 2002 42 The Limitations of EC (cont.) Technical Limitations of EC (cont.) Difficulties in integrating the Internet and electronic commerce software with some existing applications and databases The need for special Web servers and other infrastructures, in addition to the network servers (additional cost)

43 Prentice Hall, 2002 43 The Limitations of EC (cont.) Technical Limitations of EC (cont.) Possible problems of interoperability, meaning that some EC software does not fit with some hardware, or is incompatible with some operating systems or other components

44 Prentice Hall, 2002 44 Non-Technical Limitations Cost and justification The cost of developing an EC in house can be very high, and mistakes due to lack of experience may result in delays. There are many opportunities for outsourcing, but where and how to do it is not a simple issue In order to justify the system, one needs to deal with some intangible benefits which are difficult to quantify.

45 Prentice Hall, 2002 45 Security and Privacy These issues are especially important in the B2C area, but security concerns are not so serious from a technical standpoint Privacy measures are constantly improving too The EC industry has a very long and difficult task of convincing customers that online transactions and privacy are, in fact, very secure Non-Technical Limitations (cont.)

46 Prentice Hall, 2002 46 Non-Technical Limitations (cont.) Lack of trust and user resistance Customers do not trust: Unknown faceless sellers Paperless transactions Electronic money Switching from a physical to a virtual store may be difficult

47 Prentice Hall, 2002 47 Other limiting factors are: Lack of touch and feel online Many unresolved legal issues Rapidly evolving and changing EC Lack of support services Insufficiently large enough number of sellers and buyers Breakdown of human relationships Expensive and/or inconvenient accessibility to the Internet Non-Technical Limitations (cont.)

48 Prentice Hall, 2002 48 Putting It All Together Major concern of today’s companies—how to transform themselves to take part in digital economy Example:Toys, Inc. Uses intranet for internal communications, collaboration, dissemination of information Networked to e-marketspaces and large corporations Corporate portal for communication and collaboration with business partners

49 Figure 1-7 Putting It All Together Prentice Hall, 2002 49

50 Prentice Hall, 2002 50 Is it real? How to evaluate the magnitude of the business pressures. What should be my company’s strategy towards EC? Managerial Issues

51 Prentice Hall, 2002 51 Managerial Issues (cont.) Why is the B2B area so attractive? What is the best way to learn about EC? What ethical issues exist? How can failures be avoided?

52 Figure 1-8 Plan of the Book Prentice Hall, 2002 52

Download ppt "Prentice Hall, 2002 1 Chapter 1 Overview of Electronic Commerce."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google