2 Who is Thomas Ellenson? What is the key???? What advantages do you see that Thomas has over other children with disabilities?What are the obstacles that Thomas faces in life?What can you do???
3 “For whom the bells tolls;” How does disability affect most of us as we age?Who else does it affect and how?What are value-guided practices and state- of-the-art practices?Look at Figure 1: Which one stands out to you and how can you address this value in your life?
4 Who Are the Students? Number of students served Gender of students Provisions of gifted educationDisability categoriesLabels and language# students served: in school year, 272,454 infants and toddlers (birth-2) or 2.2% received early intervention services; 680,132 preschool children (ages 3-5) or 6% - U.S. Dept. of Ed. 2005More than 6 million students ages 6-21 receive some form of special education (9.05% of school enrollment)Gender: male-to-female ratio varies 1.5 to 1 and 3.5 to 1. In the category of EBD 2.2 to 1 to almost 6 to 1Provisions of gifted: special ed. also serves students who have unusual gifts and talents: less than 2/3 of the states have mandates requiring services for gifted education.Disability category: see figure 1-2Labels and Language: Person first language
5 Who Are Special Education Personnel? Approximately 401,705 special education teachers were employed inAt least 1 special education vacancy was present in 97% of school districts in the U.S.85% of the workforce are female86% are whiteAverage age is 4359% have a masters degreeAverage teaching experience is 14 yrs.577,476 are non-certified inParaprofessionals account for 87% of these positions
6 Overview of Special Education During the early and middle decades of the 20th century:Completely excluded students with disabilities in public educationSchools often classified students as having disabilities when they did not have disabilities
7 Judicial Decisions 1954 Brown vs. Board of Ed. 1972 PARC 1975 Education of All Handicapped Students Act (Pl )2004 reauthorized IDEAPARC: provided FAPE, educate students with disabilities in the same schools, procedural safeguardsEd. ACT: equity of opportunity, full participation, independent living, economic self-sufficiencyIDEA: Part B categories from ages 3-21, Part C birth -2 early intervention programs
8 IDEA: Six Principles Zero reject Nondiscriminatory evaluation Appropriate educationLeast restrictive environmentProcedural due processParental and student participation
9 No Child Left Behind Act - See pg. 21 Accountability for resultsSchool safetyParental choiceTeacher qualityScientifically based methods of teachingLocal flexibility
10 Entitlements and Other Services Rehabilitation Act (16 yrs of age)Vocational rehabilitationJob trainingSupported employmentTech ActAssistive technology
11 504 Anti-discrimination statute Violations investigated by OCR Funding pulled for non-complianceDefinition of impairment very globalMay qualify under Sec. 504 but not qualify for special education
12 ADA Expanded 504 into private sector Public facilities must be accessibleTDD servicesCriticized due to expansivenessSpecifies “reasonable accommodations”Major ProvisionsEmploymentTransportationPublic accommodationsGovernmentTelecommunications
13 Eligibility for Special Education Individual must have 1 of the 12 disability conditions identified in federal law (MR, SLD, BD, speech or language impairment, vision loss, hearing loss, orthopedic impairments, other health impaired, deafness-blindness, multiple disabilities, autism, and TBIStudent’s demonstrate a need for specialized instruction and related services in order to receive appropriate education