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Overview of Today’s Special Education

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1 Overview of Today’s Special Education
Chapter 1

2 Who is Thomas Ellenson? What is the key????
What advantages do you see that Thomas has over other children with disabilities? What are the obstacles that Thomas faces in life? What can you do???

3 “For whom the bells tolls;”
How does disability affect most of us as we age? Who else does it affect and how? What are value-guided practices and state- of-the-art practices? Look at Figure 1: Which one stands out to you and how can you address this value in your life?

4 Who Are the Students? Number of students served Gender of students
Provisions of gifted education Disability categories Labels and language # students served: in school year, 272,454 infants and toddlers (birth-2) or 2.2% received early intervention services; 680,132 preschool children (ages 3-5) or 6% - U.S. Dept. of Ed. 2005 More than 6 million students ages 6-21 receive some form of special education (9.05% of school enrollment) Gender: male-to-female ratio varies 1.5 to 1 and 3.5 to 1. In the category of EBD 2.2 to 1 to almost 6 to 1 Provisions of gifted: special ed. also serves students who have unusual gifts and talents: less than 2/3 of the states have mandates requiring services for gifted education. Disability category: see figure 1-2 Labels and Language: Person first language

5 Who Are Special Education Personnel?
Approximately 401,705 special education teachers were employed in At least 1 special education vacancy was present in 97% of school districts in the U.S. 85% of the workforce are female 86% are white Average age is 43 59% have a masters degree Average teaching experience is 14 yrs. 577,476 are non-certified in Paraprofessionals account for 87% of these positions

6 Overview of Special Education
During the early and middle decades of the 20th century: Completely excluded students with disabilities in public education Schools often classified students as having disabilities when they did not have disabilities

7 Judicial Decisions 1954 Brown vs. Board of Ed. 1972 PARC
1975 Education of All Handicapped Students Act (Pl ) 2004 reauthorized IDEA PARC: provided FAPE, educate students with disabilities in the same schools, procedural safeguards Ed. ACT: equity of opportunity, full participation, independent living, economic self-sufficiency IDEA: Part B categories from ages 3-21, Part C birth -2 early intervention programs

8 IDEA: Six Principles Zero reject Nondiscriminatory evaluation
Appropriate education Least restrictive environment Procedural due process Parental and student participation

9 No Child Left Behind Act - See pg. 21
Accountability for results School safety Parental choice Teacher quality Scientifically based methods of teaching Local flexibility

10 Entitlements and Other Services
Rehabilitation Act (16 yrs of age) Vocational rehabilitation Job training Supported employment Tech Act Assistive technology

11 504 Anti-discrimination statute Violations investigated by OCR
Funding pulled for non-compliance Definition of impairment very global May qualify under Sec. 504 but not qualify for special education

12 ADA Expanded 504 into private sector
Public facilities must be accessible TDD services Criticized due to expansiveness Specifies “reasonable accommodations” Major Provisions Employment Transportation Public accommodations Government Telecommunications

13 Eligibility for Special Education
Individual must have 1 of the 12 disability conditions identified in federal law (MR, SLD, BD, speech or language impairment, vision loss, hearing loss, orthopedic impairments, other health impaired, deafness-blindness, multiple disabilities, autism, and TBI Student’s demonstrate a need for specialized instruction and related services in order to receive appropriate education

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