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Steps in the Research Process I have a research question, what do I do next?

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Presentation on theme: "Steps in the Research Process I have a research question, what do I do next?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Steps in the Research Process I have a research question, what do I do next?

2 First things first….. Keep IRB issues in mind as you develop a plan – Old data- – New Data – Retrospective data Continuing review is required annually until project is closed. Anonymous aggregate data (easiest method to obtain approval) Questions?

3 From initial idea to… A specific question Some would argue this is the most difficult part of developing your project – Find out what is already known. – Identify what is not known, or what you can build on (e.g. with a different population or technique)

4 4.4 Using existing Scholarly literature from your discipline to specify your question Steps for a literature review: Identify key terms Locate literature Critically evaluate and select the literature Organize the literature Write the review

5 1.5 The Research Process: Data Collection Determine the data collection method Survey (web/paper considerations) Existing measures (reliability, validity) Interviews Under 18, over 18

6 6 What Permissions Are Needed: Obtaining Permission Campus approval (e.g., university or college) and Institutional Review Board (IRB) Individual participants Parents of participants who are not considered adults

7 Creswell, 3r edition6.7 Linking Data Collection to Variables and Questions Flow of ActivitiesExample Identify the variable Operationally define the variable Locate data (measures, observations, documents with questions and scales) Collect data on instruments yielding numeric scores Self-efficacy for learning from others Level of confidence that an individual can learn something by being taught by others 19 items on a self-efficacy scale from Zimmerman (et al. Scores of each item ranged from 0-10 with 10 being “completely confident”

8 Modified Creswell 3 rd edition At the manuscript stage- Be aware of how to interpret your findings based on sample size and sampling techniques. Probability sampling =techniques to draw samples representative of the population. Nonprobability sample available, convenient; also may represent some characteristic the investigator wants to study.

9 Creswell, 3 rd edition Educational Psychology Populations and Samples Sample Target Population Sample Population - All teachers in high schools in one city - College students in all community colleges - Adult educators in all schools of education Sample - All high school biology teachers - Students in one community college - Adult educators in five schools of education in the Midwest

10 Pedagogical Research potential measures of success – Scores on in class exams or standardized measures – Retention – Survey results (interest, perception of gains in learning, other “attitudes”) – Measures of skills – ? (other ideas)

11 John W. Creswell Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research, third edition Types of Quantitative Sampling Quantitative Sampling Strategies Probability Sampling Nonprobability Sampling Simple Systematic Stratified Multistage Random Sampling Sampling Cluster Sampling Convenience Snowball Sampling

12 Modified from Creswell 3 rd edition The Types of Survey Designs Time of Data Collection Study Over TimeStudy at One Point in Time LongitudinalCross-sectional Attitudes and Practices Community Needs Program Evaluation Group Comparisons National Assessment Follow students (or instructors) Over time

13 Choosing instruments: Reliability & Validity Reliability: Scores from measuring variables that are stable and consistent Example: Bathroom scale Validity: Do the items on the scale meaningfully represent your construct?

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