 # Organizing Information Pictorially Using Charts and Graphs

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Organizing Information Pictorially Using Charts and Graphs
Topic 1 Organizing Information Pictorially Using Charts and Graphs

Characteristics of the individuals under study are called variables
Some variables have values that are attributes or characteristics … those are called qualitative or categorical variables Some variables have values that are numeric measurements … those are called quantitative variables The suggested approaches to analyzing problems vary by the type of variable

Examples of categorical variables
Gender Zip code Blood type States in the United States Brands of televisions Categorical variables have category values … those values cannot be added, subtracted, etc.

Examples of quantitative variables
Temperature Height and weight Sales of a product Number of children in a family Points achieved playing a video game Quantitative variables have numeric values … those values can be added, subtracted, etc.

blue, blue, green, red, red, blue, red, blue
A simple data set is blue, blue, green, red, red, blue, red, blue A frequency table for this qualitative data is The most commonly occurring color is blue Color Frequency Blue 4 Green 1 Red 3

A relative frequency distribution lists
The relative frequencies are the proportions (or percents) of the observations out of the total A relative frequency distribution lists Each of the categories The relative frequency for each category

A relative frequency table for this qualitative data is
A relative frequency table can also be constructed with percents (50%, 12.5%, and 37.5% for the above table) Color Relative Frequency Blue .500 Green .125 Red .375

Bar graphs for categorical data
Bar graphs for our simple data (using Excel) Frequency bar graph Relative frequency bar graph

Comparative Bar Graph An example side-by-side bar graph comparing educational attainment in 1990 versus 2003

Pie Chart An example of a pie chart

Histogram for quantitative data
Quantitative data sometimes cannot be put directly into frequency tables since they do not have any obvious categories Categories are created using classes, or intervals of numbers The data is then put into the classes

For ages of adults, a possible set of classes is
20 – 29 30 – 39 40 – 49 50 – 59 60 and older For the class 30 – 39 30 is the lower class limit 39 is the upper class limit The class width is the difference between the upper class limit and the lower class limit For the class 30 – 39, the class width is 40 – 30 = 10

All the classes have the same widths, except for the last class
The class “60 and above” is an open-ended class because it has no upper limit Classes with no lower limits are also called open-ended classes

In this table, there are 1147 subjects between 30 and 39 years old
The classes and the number of values in each can be put into a frequency table In this table, there are 1147 subjects between 30 and 39 years old Age Number (frequency) 20 – 29 533 30 – 39 1147 40 – 49 1090 50 – 59 493 60 and older 110

Good practices for constructing tables for continuous variables
The classes should not overlap The classes should not have any gaps between them The classes should have the same width (except for possible open-ended classes at the extreme low or extreme high ends) The class boundaries should be “reasonable” numbers The class width should be a “reasonable” number

Just as for discrete data, a histogram can be created from the frequency table
Instead of individual data values, the categories are the classes – the intervals of data

Stemplots A stemplot is a different way to represent data that is similar to a histogram To draw a stem-and-leaf plot, each data value must be broken up into two components The stem consists of all the digits except for the right most one The leaf consists of the right most digit For the number 173, for example, the stem would be “17” and the leaf would be “3”

Stemplots In the stem-and-leaf plot below The smallest value is 56
The largest value is 180 The second largest value is 178

Stemplots To draw a stemplot
Write all the values in ascending order Find the stems and write them vertically in ascending order For each data value, write its leaf in the row next to its stem The resulting leaves will also be in ascending order The list of stems with their corresponding leaves is the stem-and-leaf plot

Comparative Stemplots
If we wanted to compare two sets of data, we could draw two stem-and-leaf plots using the same stem, with leaves going left (for one set of data) and right (for the other set)

Some common distribution shapes are
A useful way to describe a variable is by the shape of its distribution Some common distribution shapes are Uniform Bell-shaped (or normal) Skewed right Skewed left

A variable has a uniform distribution when
Each of the values tends to occur with the same frequency The histogram looks flat

A variable has a bell-shaped distribution when
Most of the values fall in the middle The frequencies tail off to the left and to the right It is symmetric

A variable has a skewed right distribution when
The distribution is not symmetric The tail to the right is longer than the tail to the left The arrow from the middle to the long tail points right Right

A variable has a skewed left distribution when
The distribution is not symmetric The tail to the left is longer than the tail to the right The arrow from the middle to the long tail points left Left

The two graphs show the same data … the difference seems larger for the graph on the left
The vertical scale is truncated on the left

However, it is much more than twice as large as the one on the left
The gazebo on the right is twice as large in each dimension as the one on the left However, it is much more than twice as large as the one on the left Original “Twice” as large