Dutch Republic - Holland Independence from Spain New subjects & styles Amsterdam= financial center Prosperity Protestant Merchant patrons Genre scenes, portraits, Still life, landscapes Painting dominates Rembrandt, Hals, Vermeer
Characteristics Dutch Painting: -continued understanding of human nature -wealthy patrons -more excepting and tolerant to female artists -other Baroque elements >tenebrism, shallow space, motion, emotion, etc. -naturalism -less intrigued with mathematics(than H. Ren) -interested in light and motion with a loose style that involved a collection of brush strokes >showing movement -more iconography, much more popular in the North than in the South -genre paintings -more secular than the South
France Monarchy, Louis XIV Paris= art center Most powerful country Appeal of Roman classicism Trade, wealth= patronage Shimmering glowing color Moral message Balanced, classicism Poussin, Lorrain Versailles
24.1 French Baroque Art In France, monarchical authority and power was consolidated, and embodied, in King Louis XIV. The foundation of the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in 1648 established French classicism as the official style. The practice of art and architecture were regularized and organized and placed in the service of the state. King Louis XIV and his principal adviser, Jean- Baptiste Colbert, used the power of art for propaganda
Georges de La Tour, Adoration of the Shepherds, 1645-1650. o/c Influence of Caravaggio's style on Georges de La Tour = use of light and unidealized figures. Like the Dutch Caravaggesque painters, the group of humbly dressed figures gathered reverentially around the sleeping baby Jesus is illuminated by a single light source (a candle) included in the painting.
England Limited monarchy Religious diversity Does not have focus Of other Baroque trends ARCHITECTURE –St Paul’s Cathedral –Sir Christoper Wren
Women artists – Renaissance to Baroque Renaissance= 1 st period, international fame Humanism Individual opportunities education, growth, achievement Cultural shift craftsmen artists perspective, anatomy, mathematics
Some transcended gender role expectations Fathers’ workshops - aristocratic connections Apprenticeship Women depicted as humans, not just muses Portraits, still lifes, religious Dutch – Flemish successful changing art market= opportunities Shift to Academy system –Membership limited
Women artist of the Baroque changed the way women were depicted in art. Female artists during the Baroque era were not permitted to train form nude models because all nude models were male, but they were very familiar with the female body. Therefore, they created images of women as conscious beings rather than detached muses.
Sofonisba Anguissola 1527-1625 Italian Spanish Court Portraits