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The Information-Processing Approach

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1 The Information-Processing Approach
The Information-Processing Approach emphasizes that children manipulate information, monitor it, and strategize about it. ─ Children develop a gradually increasing capacity for processing information ─ Central to this approach are the processes of memory and thinking. 1

2 The Information-Processing Approach
Characteristics of the information-processing approach: 1. Thinking: To perceive, encode, represent, and store information from the world 2. Self-Modification: Represented by metacognition, “knowing about knowing” 2

3 The Information-Processing Approach Continued
3. Change Mechanisms: Encoding Information gets into memory Automatization Process information with little effort Strategy Discovery of new processing Construction procedures such as transfer and generalization 3

4 The Information-Processing Approach
Memory What Is Memory? Retrieval and Forgetting Encoding Storage 4

5 Memory Memory is the retention of information over time.
ENCODING STORAGE RETRIEVAL Getting information into memory Retaining information over time Taking information out of storage 5

6 Consistent repetition of Adds to distinctiveness
Memory ENCODING REHEARSAL Consistent repetition of information over time DEEP PROCESSING Deeper processing, better memory ATTENTON Concentrate and Focus ORGANIZATION Aided by chunking CONSTRUCTING IMAGES ELABORATION Adds to distinctiveness 6

7 “Getting Students to Pay Attention”
Memory “Getting Students to Pay Attention” Use cues and gestures for important material Encourage attention and minimize distraction Focus on active learning and be aware of individual differences Be interesting Use media and technology to make learning enjoyable 7

8 Memory Memory’s Time Frames
Sensory Memory Retains information for an instant Short-Term Limited capacity; retain for 30 Memory seconds without rehearsal Long-Term Unlimited capacity over a long Memory period of time 8

9 Memory Atkinson and Shiffrin’s Theory

10 Memory Developmental Changes in Memory

11 Memory Baddeley’s Model of Memory

12 Declarative (explicit) Nondeclarative (implicit)
Memory Long-Term Memory Declarative (explicit) Nondeclarative (implicit) Declarative is “knowing that” Nondeclarative is knowing how Example: I know that George Bush is president, but I don’t necessarily know how to be president Episodic memory – where and when things occur Semantic – general knowledge about the world Episodic Memory Semantic Memory 12

13 Memory Retrieval and Forgetting
Primacy effect: items at the beginning remembered best Serial position: recall better at the beginning and end of list Retrieval Specificity: associations form cues Recall: previously learned info., as in fill-in-the-blank Recognition: identify learned information, as in multiple choice 13

14 Memory Retrieval and Forgetting
Cue Dependent Forgetting Interference Theory Decay Theory Caused by a lack of retrieval cues Other information (new or old) gets in the way of what we are trying to remember Passage of time allows “memory trace” to disintegrate 14

15 Expertise and Learning
Experts . . . 1. Have superior recall, use “chunking” of information 2. Organize around important ideas and concepts 3. Demonstrate effortless retrieval by taking the time to formulate a plan 4. Are flexible rather than having a rigid, fixed routine 5. Though talented, develop learning and study strategies - Spread out learning - Ask questions/take good notes - Use a study system 15

16 Metacognition Metacognition: “Knowing about knowing”
Metacognitive Knowledge: Monitoring and reflecting on one’s current or recent thoughts Metacognitive Activity: Students consciously adapt and manage their thinking strategies during problem solving and purposeful thinking 16

17 Metacognition Improvement of metacognitive skills results from:
Developmental changes as student matures cognitively The Good information-processing model that includes specific learning strategies, knowing the similarities and differences in multiple strategies, and the benefits of using them Monitoring the effectiveness of strategies and modifying when necessary 17

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