Leadership. Process by which an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal Leadership is not a moral concept Good leaders understand.
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Presentation on theme: "Leadership. Process by which an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal Leadership is not a moral concept Good leaders understand."— Presentation transcript:
Process by which an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal Leadership is not a moral concept Good leaders understand their strengths & weaknesses Traits, behaviors, contingency, transformational
Leadership Complex – Every time a manager and an employee interact there are many variables at play Examples: – Manager’s objective & employee’s objective – Manager’s attitude about the employee & the employee’s attitude about the manager – Manager’s ability to communicate & employee’s ability to communicate – Manager’s moods/emotions & employee’s moods/emotions – People perceive things differently – The more of these variables that you are able to take into consideration, the more likely you are to make a good decision
Leadership Individualistic – Not all great leaders are the same – Not about trying to be like someone else – Increased self awareness – Ability to learn from constructive feedback
Trait Theory Some people have an innate ability to lead others Stodgill & Mann – Intelligence, dominance, self-confidence, energy, task-relevant knowledge Implicit Leadership Theory – People have leadership prototypes Intelligence, masculinity, dominance
Trait Theory, continued Kouzes & Posner – “What values do you look for and admire in your superiors?” – Honesty, forward-looking, inspiring, & competent – Credibility Daniel Goleman – Emotional Intelligence Tim Judge – Extraversion, conscientiousness, & openness to experience were related to leadership effectiveness – Intelligence was modestly related
Traits of Bad Leaders Barbara Kellerman – Incompetent – Rigid – Intemperate – Callous – Corrupt – Insular – Evil
Gender & Leadership Men – task; women – social Men – autocratic; women – democratic Equally assertive Women are often rated higher than men by subordinates & peers
Behavioral Styles Seeks input from others before taking action; gets consensus High Low Showing Consideration Initiating Structure Passive, noncommittal, low impact on followers Takes charge, structures employees tasks Emphasizes reaching the goal while welcoming suggestions and encouraging consensus Figure 16-1 16-10
Contingency Models of Leadership No traits or behaviors will ensure effective leadership in all situations A behavior effective in one situation may be ineffective in another Appropriate leadership behavior is contingent on the situation
Fiedler’s Contingency Model Leader style - approach to leadership that a manager uses and does not readily change. – Relationship-oriented : concerned with developing good relations with subordinates and being liked – Task-oriented : ensure that subordinates perform at a high level so the job gets done.
Fiedler’s Situation Characteristics How favorable a situation is for leading to occur. Leader-member relations—how much workers like and trust their leader. Task structure—the extent to which workers tasks are clear-cut Position Power—the amount of legitimate, reward, and coercive power leaders have
Full-Range Model of Leadership Laissez-faire leadership – hands-off approach Transactional Leadership – Set goals / clarify expectations – Reward/punish (extrinsic motivation) Transformational Leadership – Change employee’s minds – Influence values, attitudes, personal goals, etc.
Inspirational Motivation Establish an attractive vision – Gap between current & ideal state Appeal to employee’s emotions Show optimism & enthusiasm
Idealized Influence Respect/admiration for the leader Sacrificing for the good of the group Behave ethically/role model
Individualized Consideration Support, encourage, coach employees Help employee to develop skills & career Value ambition
Intellectual Stimulation Encourage descending opinions Encourage employees to question the status quo Encourage employees to think creatively and independently
Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Quality of the relationship between boss and employee Leaders don’t treat every subordinate the same way In-group/out-group Influenced by personality and demographic similarity
Shared Leadership Horizontal (peer) influence Popular in team settings More people are likely to possess the necessary skills to lead
Servant Leadership Great leaders act as servants – putting the needs of others first
Followership Followers differ in terms of how they commit, comply, or resist leadership influence Helpers – show deference and comply Independents – create distance; less likely to comply Rebels – show divergence; least compliant