PowerPoint Presentation to Accompany Chapter 16 of Management, 8/e John R. Schermerhorn, Jr. Prepared by:Michael K. McCuddy Valparaiso University Published.
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PowerPoint Presentation to Accompany Chapter 16 of Management, 8/e John R. Schermerhorn, Jr. Prepared by:Michael K. McCuddy Valparaiso University Published by: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Management 8/e - Chapter 162 Planning Ahead — Chapter 16 Study Questions How do teams contribute to organizations? What are the current trends in the use of teams? How do teams work? How do teams make decisions? What are the challenges of leading high- performance teams?
Management 8/e - Chapter 163 Study Question 1: How do teams contribute to organizations? Team – A small group of people with complementary skills, who work together to achieve a shared purpose and hold themselves mutually accountable for performance results. Teamwork – The process of people actively working together to accomplish common goals
Management 8/e - Chapter 164 Study Question 1: How do teams contribute to organizations? Team and teamwork roles for managers: – Supervisor — serving as the appointed head of a formal work unit. – Network facilitator — serving as a peer leader an network hub for a special task force. – Participant — serving as a helpful contributing member of a project team. – External coach — serving as the external convenor or sponsor of a problem-solving team staffed by others.
Management 8/e - Chapter 165 Study Question 1: How do teams contribute to organizations? Common problems in teams: –Personality conflicts. –Individual differences in work styles. –Ambiguous agendas. –Ill-defined problems. –Poor readiness to work. Lack of motivation. Conflicts with other deadlines or priorities. Lack of team organization or progress. Meetings that lack purpose or structure. Members coming to meetings unprepared.
Management 8/e - Chapter 166 Study Question 1: How do teams contribute to organizations? Seven sins of deadly meetings: –People arrive late, leave early, and don’t take things seriously. –The meeting is too long. –People don’t stay on topic. –The discussion lacks candor. –The right information isn’t available, so decisions are postponed. –No one puts decisions into action. –The same mistakes are made meeting after meeting.
Management 8/e - Chapter 167 Study Question 1: How do teams contribute to organizations? Synergy –The creation of a whole that is greater than the sum of its parts. –A team uses its membership resources to the fullest and thereby achieves through collective action far more than could be achieved otherwise.
Management 8/e - Chapter 168 Study Question 1: How do teams contribute to organizations? Usefulness of teams: –More resources for problem solving. –Improved creativity and innovation. –Improved quality of decision making. –Greater commitments to tasks. –Higher motivation through collective action. –Better control and work discipline. –More individual need satisfaction.
Management 8/e - Chapter 169 Study Question 1: How do teams contribute to organizations? Formal groups — –Teams that are officially recognized and supported by the organization for specific purposes. –Specifically created to perform essential tasks. –Managers and leaders serve “linking pin” roles.
Management 8/e - Chapter 1610 Study Question 1: How do teams contribute to organizations? Informal groups — –Not recognized on organization charts. –Not officially created for an organizational purpose. –Emerge as part of the informal structure and from natural or spontaneous relationships among people. –Include interest, friendship, and support groups. –Can have positive performance impact. –Can help satisfy social needs.
Management 8/e - Chapter 1611 Study Question 2: What are the current trends in the use of teams? Committees, project teams, and task forces — – Committees. People outside their daily job assignments work together in a small team for a specific purpose. Task agenda is narrow, focused, and ongoing. – Projects teams or task forces. People from various parts of an organization work together on common problems, but on a temporary basis. Official tasks are very specific and time defined. Disbands after task is completed.
Management 8/e - Chapter 1612 Study Question 2: What are the current trends in the use of teams? Guidelines for managing projects and task forces: – Select appropriate team members. – Clearly define the purpose of the team. – Carefully select a team leader. – Periodically review progress.
Management 8/e - Chapter 1613 Study Question 2: What are the current trends in the use of teams? Cross-functional teams — –Members come from different functional units of an organization. –Team works on a specific problem or task with the needs of the whole organization in mind. –Teams are created to knock down “walls” separating departments.
Management 8/e - Chapter 1614 Study Question 2: What are the current trends in the use of teams? Employee involvement teams — –Groups of workers who meet on a regular basis outside of their formal assignments. –Have the goal of applying their expertise and attention to continuous improvement. –Quality circles represent a common form of employee involvement teams.
Management 8/e - Chapter 1615 Study Question 2: What are the current trends in the use of teams? Virtual teams — –Teams of people who work together and solve problems through largely computer-mediated rather than face-to-face interactions. –Sometimes called … Computer-mediated groups Electronic group networks
Management 8/e - Chapter 1616 Study Question 2: What are the current trends in the use of teams? Potential advantages of virtual teams: –Savings in time and travel expenses. –Minimization or elimination of interpersonal difficulties. –Ease of expansion. Potential problems of virtual teams: –Difficulty in establishing good working relationships. –Depersonalization of working relationships.
Management 8/e - Chapter 1617 Study Question 2: What are the current trends in the use of teams? Guidelines for managing virtual teams: –Virtual teams should begin with social messaging. –Team members should be assigned clear roles. –Team members must have positive attitudes that support team goals.
Management 8/e - Chapter 1618 Study Question 2: What are the current trends in the use of teams? Self-managing work teams — –Teams of workers whose jobs have been redesigned to create a high degree of task interdependence and who have been given authority to make many decisions about how to do the required work. –Also known as autonomous work groups.
Management 8/e - Chapter 1619 Study Question 2: What are the current trends in the use of teams? Typical self-management responsibilities: –Planning and scheduling work. –Training members in various tasks. –Sharing tasks. –Meeting performance goals. –Ensuring high quality. –Solving day-to-day operating problems. –In some cases, hiring and firing team members.
Management 8/e - Chapter 1620 Study Question 2: What are the current trends in the use of teams? In self-managing work teams, members … –Are held collectively accountable for performance results. –Have discretion in distributing tasks within the team. –Have discretion in scheduling work within the team. –Are able to perform more than one job on the team. –Evaluate one another’s performance contributions. –Are responsible for the total quality of team products.
Management 8/e - Chapter 1621 Study Question 3: How do teams work? Effective teams … –Achieve and maintain high levels of task performance. –Achieve and maintain high levels of member satisfaction. –Retain viability for the future.
Management 8/e - Chapter 1622 Study Question 3: How do teams work? Resource input factors that influence group process in the pursuit of team effectiveness: –Nature of the task. –Organizational setting. –Team size. –Membership characteristics.
Management 8/e - Chapter 1623 Study Question 3: How do teams work? Group process: –The way the members of any team work together as they transform inputs into outputs : –Also known as group dynamics. –Includes communications, decision making, norms, cohesion, and conflict, among others.
Management 8/e - Chapter 1624 Study Question 3: How do teams work? Team effectiveness may be summarized as … Team Effectiveness = Quality of Inputs + (Process Gains - Process Losses)
Management 8/e - Chapter 1625 Study Question 3: How do teams work? Stages of team development: –Forming — initial orientation and interpersonal testing. –Storming — conflict over tasks and ways of working as a team. –Norming — consolidation around task and operating agendas. –Performing — teamwork and focused task performance. –Adjourning — task accomplishment and eventual disengagement.
Management 8/e - Chapter 1626 Study Question 3: How do teams work? Norms –Behavior expected of team members. –Rules or standards that guide behavior. –May result in team sanctions. Performance norms –Define the level of work effort and performance that team members are expected to contribute to the team task.
Management 8/e - Chapter 1627 Study Question 3: How do teams work? Guidelines for building positive norms: –Act as a positive role model. –Reinforce the desired behaviors with rewards. –Control results by performance reviews and regular feedback. –Orient and train new members to adopt desired behaviors. –Recruit and select new members who exhibit desired behaviors. –Hold regular meetings to discuss progress and ways of improving. –Use team decision-making methods to reach agreement.
Management 8/e - Chapter 1628 Study Question 3: How do teams work? Cohesiveness –The degree to which members are attracted to and motivated to remain part of a team. –Can be beneficial if paired with positive performance norms.
Management 8/e - Chapter 1629 Study Question 3: How do teams work? Effects of team cohesiveness and norms: –Positive norms + high cohesiveness high performance and strong commitments to positive norms. –Positive norms + low cohesiveness moderate performance and weak commitments to positive norms.
Management 8/e - Chapter 1630 Study Question 3: How do teams work? Effects of team cohesiveness and norms (cont.): –Negative norms + low cohesiveness low to moderate performance and weak commitments to negative norms. –Negative norms + high cohesiveness low performance and strong commitments to negative norms.
Management 8/e - Chapter 1631 Study Question 3: How do teams work? Guidelines for increasing team cohesion: –Induce agreement on team goals. –Increase membership homogeneity. –Increase interaction among members. –Decrease team size. –Introduce competition with other teams. –Reward team rather than individual results. –Provide physical isolation from other teams.
Management 8/e - Chapter 1632 Study Question 3: How do teams work? Task activities –Actions by team members that contribute directly to team’s performance purpose. –Include: Initiating Information sharing Summarizing Elaborating Opinion giving
Management 8/e - Chapter 1633 Study Question 3: How do teams work? Maintenance activities –Support emotional life of a team as an ongoing social system. –Include: Gatekeeping Encouraging Following Harmonizing Reducing tension
Management 8/e - Chapter 1634 Study Question 3: How do teams work? Distributed leadership roles … –Make every member responsible for recognizing when task and/or maintenance activities are needed and taking actions to provide them. –Leading through task activities focuses on solving problems and achieving performance results. –Leading through maintenance activities helps strengthen and perpetuate the team as a social system.
Management 8/e - Chapter 1635 Study Question 3: How do teams work? Dysfunctional activities that detract from team effectiveness: –Being aggressive –Blocking –Self-confessing –Seeking sympathy –Competing –Withdrawal –Horsing around –Seeking recognition
Management 8/e - Chapter 1636 Study Question 3: How do teams work? Communication networks –Decentralized All members communicate directly with one another. –Centralized Activities are coordinated and results pooled by central point of control. –Restricted Polarized subgroups contest one another. Subgroups may engage in antagonistic relations.
Management 8/e - Chapter 1637 Study Question 4: How do teams make decisions? Methods of team decision making: –Lack of response –Authority rule –Minority rule –Majority rule –Consensus –Unanimity
Management 8/e - Chapter 1638 Study Question 4: How do teams make decisions? Assets of team decision making: –Greater amounts of information, knowledge, and expertise. –Expands number of action alternatives considered. –Increases understanding and acceptance. –Increases commitment to follow through.
Management 8/e - Chapter 1639 Study Question 4: How do teams make decisions? Potential disadvantages of team decision making: –Social pressure to conform. –Individual or minority group domination. –Time requirements.
Management 8/e - Chapter 1640 Study Question 4: How do teams make decisions? Symptoms of groupthink: –Illusions of group invulnerability. –Rationalizing unpleasant and disconfirming data. –Belief in inherent group morality. –Negative stereotypes of competitors. –Pressure to conform. –Self-censorship of members. –Illusions of unanimity. –Mind guarding.
Management 8/e - Chapter 1641 Study Question 4: How do teams make decisions? Methods for dealing with groupthink: –Have each group member be a critical evaluator. –Don’t appear to favor one course of action. –Create subteams to work on the same problems. –Have team members discuss issues with outsiders. –Have outside experts observe and provide feedback on team activities. –Assign a member to the devil’s advocate role. –Hold a second-chance meeting.
Management 8/e - Chapter 1642 Study Question 4: How do teams make decisions? Creativity in team decision making — guidelines for brainstorming: –All criticism is ruled out. –Freewheeling is welcomed. –Quantity is important. –Building on one another’s ideas is encouraged.
Management 8/e - Chapter 1643 Study Question 4: How do teams make decisions? Creativity in team decision making — steps in the nominal group technique: –Participants work alone, identifying possible solutions. –Ideas are shared in a round-robin fashion without any criticism or discussion. –Ideas are discussed and clarified in a round-robin sequence. –Members individually and silently follow a written voting procedure. –The last two steps are repeated as needed.
Management 8/e - Chapter 1644 Study Question 5: What are the challenges of leading high-performance teams? Team building –A sequence of planned activities used to gather and analyze data on the functioning of a team and to implement constructive changes to increase its operating effectiveness.
Management 8/e - Chapter 1645 Study Question 5: What are the challenges of leading high-performance teams? Steps in a cyclical team-building process: –Step 1 — problem awareness. –Step 2 — data gathering. –Step 3 — data analysis and diagnosis. –Step 4 — action planning. –Step 5 — action implementation. –Step 6 — evaluation.
Management 8/e - Chapter 1646 Study Question 5: What are the challenges of leading high-performance teams? Characteristics of high-performing teams: –A clear and elevating goal. –A task-driven, results-oriented structure. –Competent and committed members who work hard. –A collaborative climate. –High standards of excellence. –External support and recognition. –Strong and principled leadership.
Management 8/e - Chapter 1647 Study Question 5: What are the challenges of leading high-performance teams? Effective team leaders act to: –Establish clear vision. –Create change. –Unleash talent.