Chap 18: Safety and Health in the Workplace Anita Sego Spring, 2005.
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Chap 18: Safety and Health in the Workplace Anita Sego Spring, 2005
Chap 18: Workplace Safety Chapter Objectives Describe the scope of the occupational safety and health problems in the United States and its importance to the community. Identify some of the pioneers in the prevention of occupational injuries and disease. Provide a short history of state and federal legislation on occupational safety and health.
Chap 18: Workplace Safety Chapter Objectives Explain the difference between occupational injuries and occupational diseases and give several examples of each. Discuss the types of injuries that frequently occur in the workplace and describe their occurrence with regards to person, place, and time. Briefly describe broad strategies for preventing injuries in the workplace.
Chap 18: Workplace Safety Chapter Objectives Identify the different types of occupational illnesses and disorders and list some of the causative agents. Outline some general strategies for controlling these diseases. List several occupational safety and health professions and describe what the professionals in each of these do. List and briefly describe several occupational safety and health programs for the workplace.
Chap 18: Workplace Safety Definitions Occupational disease –an abnormal condition, other than an occupational injury, caused by an exposure to environmental factors associated with employment Occupational injury –an injury that results from exposure to a single incident in the work environment
Chap 18: Workplace Safety Occupational Injuries, Diseases, & Deaths Scope of the Problem –estimated cost of $123 billion annually –5.7 million injuries and illness during 1999 –9,000 US workers sustain disabling injuries –17 die from work related injuries –137 die from work related diseases Impact is beyond the workplace
Chap 18: Workplace Safety History of Occupational Safety and Health Problems 1561 De Re Metallica Industrial Revolution State Legislation –workers’ compensation laws Federal Legislation –Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 –National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
Chap 18: Workplace Safety Highlights of Federal Occupational Safety & Health Legislation YearLegislation 1908Federal Workmen’s Compensation Act - limited coverage 1916Federal Highway Aid Act 1926Federal Workmen’s Compensation Act- include workers 1927Federal Longshoremen’s & Harbor Workers’ Compensation Act 1936Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act 1952Coal Mine Safety Act 1959Radiation Standards Act 1960Federal Hazardous Substances Labeling Act 1966National Traffic & Motor Vehicle Safety Act Child Protection Act - banned hazardous household substances 1967National Commission on Product Safety created 1968Natural Gas Pipeline Safety Act 1969Construction Safety Act Coal Mine Health & Safety Act 1970Occupational Safety & Health Act
Chap 18: Workplace Safety Prevalence of Occupational Injuries, Disease, and Deaths Recent trends –Since 1990 decline in number of injuries and illnesses –Goods-producing sector highest incidence –Workplace injury and illness rates cycle up and down
Chap 18: Workplace Safety Unintentional Injuries Fatal Work-related Injuries –17 fatal work-related injuries/day Nonfatal Work-related Injuries –3.6 million occupational injuries and illnesses were treated in emergency rooms in 1996 Characteristics of Works –Age injuries highest for 18 - 19 year old death rates highest for 65+ year old –Gender –Poverty and Race
Chap 18: Workplace Safety Workplace Fatalities 1999
Chap 18: Workplace Safety Unintentional Injuries Geographic Differences –Alaska and Wyoming highest rates –Connecticut lowest rate Temporal Variations –81% decline in injuries death between 1912 - 1999
Chap 18: Workplace Safety Workplace Injuries by Industry and Occupation Fatal injuries by industry –mining –agriculture –construction –transportation Nonfatal occupational injuries –goods-producing –service-producing
Chap 18: Workplace Safety Prevention and Control of Unintentional Injuries in the Workplace Reduction of injuries by: –eliminating or modifying the job –changing the work environment –making machinery safer –improving the selection, training, and education of workers
Chap 18: Workplace Safety Workplace Violence Categories –Criminal intent –Customer/client –Worker-on-worker –Personal relationship Risk Factors –location –time –type of work
Chap 18: Workplace Safety Occupational Illnesses and Disorders Musculoskeletal Conditions –repeated trauma Skin Disease & Disorders –allergic and irritant dermatitis Noise-induced Hearing Loss Respiratory Disorders –chronic nature –difficulty to recognize Other Work-Related Diseases and Disorders –poisoning and infections –anxiety, stress, or neurotic disorders
Chap 18: Workplace Safety Prevention and Control of Occupational Diseases and Disorders Agent-host- environment model –Identification and evaluation of agents –Procedures –Engineering controls –Protective devices –Surveillance AgentEnvironment Host
Chap 18: Workplace Safety Resources for Prevention Safety & Health Professionals Safety Engineers and certified safety professional Health Physicists Industrial Hygienists Occupational Physicians Occupational Health Nurse Occupational Safety and Health Programs Disease Prevention Programs Safety Programs Health Promotion Programs Employee Assistance Programs
Chap 18: Workplace Safety Chapter 18 Safety and Health in the Workplace