2 Background Using content from other disciplines in language courses. Specialised language courses including content relevant to a particular profession or academic discipline.
3 Background (cont.)Language is not just a medium of communication but a medium of learning across the curriculum. The goal of integration is both language learning and content learning.Content-based classrooms are not merely placed where a student learns a second language; they are places where a student gains an education.(Mohan,1986)
4 ‘Faces’ of content-based instruction Marguerite Ann Snow:1. Language immersionAcademic subjects are learned through the medium of a foreign language. E.g.: Canadian Ss learn subjects in French.
5 ‘Faces’ of content-based instruction (cont.) 2. Adjunct model: Content and language instruction have been integrated.Ss enroll in a regular academic course.In addition, Ss take a lang. course linked to academic course.During lang. class, T focuses on helping Ss process the lang. in order to understand the academic content presented by subject T.Lang. T helps Ss to complete academic task.(eg.: term paper, notetaking, reading..)
6 ‘Faces’ of content-based instruction (cont.) 3. Sheltered –language instructionBoth native and non-native speakers of a particular language follow a regular academic curriculum.To gear to Ss develop Ss’ second lang. proficiency.Second lang. Ss do not have to postpone academic study.
7 ‘Faces’ of content-based instruction (cont.) Competency-based instructionSs (immigrants) develop 2nd lang. skill at the same time learning vital ‘life-coping/survived skills.
8 Whole Language Approach Similar philosophy with content-based instruction.Originated in classes for children of English native speakers.Regard lang. holistically, rather than as pieces.Ss learn best not when learning lang. piece by piece, but when they are working to understand the meaning of whole texts (top-down).
9 Whole Language Approach (cont.) Ss learn the meaning of overall text before working on linguistic forms.Purposeful use of language.Provide content-rich curriculum- lang. and thinking are about interesting and significant content.See errors as part of learning.As a social process, learning is best served by collaboration between Ts and Ss or among Ss.
10 Whole Language Approach (cont.) -Language Experience Approach Example in reading- the text Ss learn to read from are based upon Ss’ life experiences.The text is about content that is significant to the Ss.
11 Whole Language Approach (cont.)- Process writing Traditional writing approach: Product-orientated- T is not involved in the process of Ss’ writing.Process writing- Ss repeated conferences w/ T& Ss to receive feedback on their writing up and revise.
12 Whole Language Approach (cont.) -Journal keeping Widely practice in the Whole Lang. Approach.Focus on the Ss’ writing.Writing journal can be the way Ss communicate to T to express their feelings.T reads journal entry and writes a response to it but does not correct its form.