Learning Objects Kim, L., Yan, L. and Miller, B. (2004-2006)
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1 Learning ObjectsKim, L., Yan, L. and Miller, B.( )
2 Learning OutcomesAt the end of this presentation students will be able to:describe the elements of a learning objectidentify what is and what is not a learning objectanalyze the quality of a learning objectproduce a high quality learning object
3 Index What is learning objects Components of learning objects The requirements for objectsDefinition of learning objectsCharacteristics of learning objectsLearning objects versus informational objectsBenefit of using learning objectsPros and Cons of Learning ObjectsStandards for learning object designRelevant Links
4 What is Learning Objects? Learning objects are building blocks Designed to be instructionalDesigned to be extractableDesigned to be reusableEach blocks can be combined to construct collections that might be called lessons, modules, courses or curricula
5 What can be each block? (content) TextGraphicsAnimationsVideoAudioRegardless of multimedia components all Learning Objects must have an assessment
6 Requirements for each block Must be able to communicate with learning management systems.How a learner moves between blocks is controlled by the integrated learning system.Must have a description that enables designers to search for and find the right block for the right job.Usually the length of each block is between five to fifteen minutes.
7 Integrated Learning System ILS is computer-based systems for the delivery of curriculum material, via an individualized program of studyAn ILS is made up of two components, Computer Aided Instruction (CAI) modules (often called courseware) and a Management System.The CAI modules present the teaching material in a similar way to existing educational software. The Management System keeps records of the students' performance and, in the case of SuccessMaker, moves them through the levels of difficulty as appropriate. It also allows the teachers to set up (configure) all the different course options, to suit their own teaching styles and the needs of their pupils.
8 Key Features of ILSAn individualized learning program. High performers can make rapid progress onto higher levels of difficulty. When learners experience problems, they are given more practice and/ or additional tutorials. Questions are related to various skills needed for the topic.Instructors have access to data for monitoring learners’ progress. They can identify learners who are experiencing difficulty and in need of additional support. Data are gathered automatically and can be displayed in reports. Over time, Management Systems are helpful in predicting future performance.Provide learners with immediate feedback thus improving learner motivation and acceleration of learning.
9 Learning ObjectsA learning object, for all practical purposes (designed for active learning), is an object or set of resources (blocks) that can be used for facilitating intended learning outcomes, and can be extracted and reused in other learning environments.Often called "Reusable Learning Objects," (RLO's) or "Educational Objects," the term has been recently associated with electronic learning resources that can be shared in multiple learning environments. For example, a Flash animation that labels the parts of the human respiratory system, could be used in an online course for EMS professionals.
10 Characteristics of Learning Objects ReusabilityInteroperabilityExtractable: Stand-AloneDurabilityAccessibilityReusability means that content developed in one context being transferred to another context. Each contents should be shared across learning environments accessed on demand by instructors and learners. This means that students can practice skills and repeat learning activities until they fully grasp the content. This also means that instructors can borrow each others’ materials, giving each object exponential power as the number of learners accessing the item now.When it comes to interoperability units that interoperate with each other regardless of developer or learning management system.In terms of Extractable, each learning object (block) should have ability to be plucked from one learning environemnt and placed into another. As learning objects are designed by institutions, it helps to pool together resources from various departments, schools, and universities to build learning objects that can be shared, or cross- referenced.Durability means units of instruction that withstand ever evolving delivery and presentation technologies without becoming unusable.Accessibility means that learning content that is available anywhere, any time
11 Learning Objects v. Informational Objects The intent of a learning object's designer is to facilitate learning, while information objects are designed to be a reference, and not necessarily for the purpose of retaining skills or concepts by the user.Learning objects incorporate assessment, while information objects do not.For example: A web page that describes characteristics of various breeds of dogs is informational. If the same website provides a learning activity that allows the learner to match the descriptions with the appropriate photos and gives feedback for incorrect attempts, then it was built with the intention of giving the learner opportunities to reinforce the recognition of various breeds, providing an environment that is much more conducive to learning.Example
12 Informational Objects are Passive Learning Objects Most learning objects are active learning objects. However, informational objects are instructional in design but do not require active participation from the user. These are called passive learning objects.Remember:If the intent is to inform, then it is an informational object. If the intent is to facilitate learning, then it is a learning object and should have an assessment.active learning objects: with interaction between the learner and learning system.Passive LO:For example, a bulleted list of symptoms of diabetes might be intended as a study aid for nursing students. Because the students know that the information will be on the test, they will consciously attempt to memorize the symptoms. It just is a passive learning object, with intended learning outcomes.
13 So, Without Learning Objects A significant investment in either content or a learning system is locked into that particular content or system.Every time a course or an interactive electronic training manual needs to be updated, far more material must be rewritten than is desirable.The process of developing high-quality content is prone to unnecessary duplication of effort, thus driving up the cost.
14 Pros of Learning Objects Production CostsBreaking content into learning objects, content can be maintained and updated separately. If a suitable learning object can be found, a new one does not need to be created.FlexibilityAs more standards-based learning objects become available, increased choice will translate into more flexibility.End User CostLearning objects prevent consumers from being locked into specific systems. As standards take hold, the market for content provide for content to be reused or recycles thus lowering production cost while increasing options.Industry SupportLeading system vendors and content producers are supporting SCORM standards, which complements the learning object approach.SCORM: shareable content object reference model. Reference guide for developer to follow when building the objects.
15 Cons of Learning Objects Production CostsChanging content to a learning objects from a "self-contained system" approach involves retooling and retraining costs.End User CostThe increased cost of converting existing content to a learning objects approach will drive end user cost upward.Industry SupportRealistically, it is twelve to eighteen months between the time the vendor community adopts an approach and the time products that implement the approach are available.
16 Standards for Learning Objects Design XML – a structured means of representing hierarchies and propertiesTagged languageUsed by IMS, SCORM and by many other agencies around the worldXML: Extensible Markup Language – is recommended general-purpose markup language that supports a wide variety of applications. XML languages or 'dialects' are easy to design and to process. XML is also designed to be reasonably human-legible, and to this end, terseness was not considered essential in its structure. XML is a simplified subset of Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML). Its primary purpose is to facilitate the sharing of data across different information systems, particularly systems connected via the Internet.Tagged language like htmlIMS: a global coalition of educational, commercial and government organizations who are working on a global adoption of specifications for software intended to make learning objects available in multiple system environments.Shareable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM) is a collection of standards and specifications for web-based e-learning. It defines communications between client side content and a host system called the run-time environment (commonly a function of a learning management system). SCORM also defines how content may be packaged into a transferable ZIP file.SCORM is a specification of the Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL) Initiative, which comes out of the Office of the Secretary of Defense.SCORM 2004 introduces a complex idea called sequencing, which is a set of rules that specify the order in which a learner may experience content objects. The standard uses XML, and it is based on the results of work done by AICC (CBT), IMS, IEEE, and Ariadne
17 Reusability Design Elements Design them to be:GenericInteroperableRewind-ableAccessibleFree to useFindableEngagingSandy Mills-Alford
18 Example Links Hospitality Training Organization Hotel Housekeeping Staffing GuideGiving Effective PraiseManaging Quality: 5S
19 Can you answer the following questions? What is learning object?Components of learning object?What’s the difference between learning object and informational object?What are pros and cons of learning object?Can you identify learning object now?Can you find some examples of learning objects?