Describe an effective accounting information system. Objective 1
Control Compatibility Flexibility Cost/benefit relationship Basic Features
4 Internal controls are the methods and procedures used to authorize transactions and safeguard assets. 4 Compatibility means that the system works smoothly with operations, personnel, and the organizational structure.
Basic Features 4 Flexibility relates to the system’s ability to accommodate changes in the organization. 4 A cost/benefit relationship indicates that the cost of controls do not exceed their value to the organization.
Company Personnel Hardware Software Computerized Accounting System
4 Hardware is the electronic equipment that makes up a computer system. 4 Software is a system of instructions that drive the computer to perform various functions. 4 Properly trained personnel are critical to the successful operations of the system.
Objective 2 Understand both computerized and manual accounting systems.
Processing Input (Source documents) (Financial statements) Output Three Stages of Data Processing
Computerized Accounting System entered, edited printed to paper, screen ACCOUNTING RECORDS Journals, Ledgers, Other records SOFTWARE PROCESSING PERSONNEL input transactions, request reports, protect records REPORTSDATA INPUT OUTPUT posted accessed for reports HARDWARE
Designing an Accounting System 4 Design of the accounting system begins with the chart of accounts. 4 The chart of accounts lists all accounts and their account number in the ledger.
Menu-Driven Accounting System 4 Computer systems are organized by function or task. 4 Computer systems usually have a choice of processing options on a “menu.”
Menu-Driven Accounting System GeneralReceivablesPayablesPayrollReports Posting Account Maintenance COMPUTERIZED ACCOUNTING SYSTEM Use arrow keys to make choice. Press to access choice. Press F7 to leave menu. MAIN InventoryUtilities Closing
Preparing Accounting Reports Trial Balance Financial Statements Accounts Receivable Detail Accounts Payable Detail Daily Cash Report Income Statement Balance Sheet Statement of Owners’ Equity Statement of Cash Flows Use arrow keys to make choice. Press to access choice. Press F7 to leave menu. REPORTS
Objective 3 Understand how spreadsheets are used in accounting.
Integrated Accounting Systems 4 Computerized accounting systems are organized by modules. 4 These modules are separate but integrated units. 4 A sales transaction entry will update two modules: 1 Accounts Receivable/Sales 2 Inventory/Cost of Goods Sold
Ana’s Boutique Example 4 Ana wants to budget for expected cash collections in the month of May. 4 Past experience indicates that 50% of credit sales are collected in the month of sales and 50% the following month.
Ana’s Boutique Example 4 May sales were $250,000. 4 $50,000 were cash sales. 4 April credit sales amounted to $120,000. 4 What are the expected cash collections during the month of May?
Ana’s Boutique Example 4 May cash sales$ 50,000 Collection of April’s credit sales 60,000 Collection of May’s credit sales 100,000 Total $210,000 4 Spreadsheets make computations like these easier.
Spreadsheet Example Income Statement: Revenues100,000 Expenses 60,000 Net Income Row:1 2 3 4 5 Column: A B C Formula for B4: =B2–B3 Cursor is on cell B4. 40,000
Objective 4 Use the sales journal, the cash receipts journal, and the accounts receivable ledger.
Special Journals 4 What are special journals? 4 They are accounting journals used to record one specific type of transaction. 4 What are some examples? SalesCash Receipts Payroll Cash DisbursementsPurchases
General Ledger Jrnl.Debit DateRef.DebitCreditBalance Jan. 31CR.61,882 CashNo. 101
Cash Receipts Journal 4 Additional columns are provided to enter other account descriptions and amounts. 4 Cash receipts amounts affecting subsidiary ledger accounts are posted daily to keep customer balances up to date. 4 At month end, foot and crossfoot the journal and post to the general ledger.
Objective 5 Use the purchase journal, the cash disbursements journal, and the accounts payable ledger.
Purchases Journal 4 This is designed to account for all purchases of inventory, supplies, services, and other assets on account.
Purchases Journal 4 Cash purchases are recorded in the cash disbursements journal. 4 At month end the journal is footed and crossfooted. 4 Posting to the general ledger is similar to posting from sales and cash receipts journals.
Cash Disbursements Journal 4 Most payments are by check and are recorded in the cash disbursements journal. 4 The cash disbursements journal is also called: – check register – cash payments journal
Cash Disbursements Journal 4 This has columns for : – date – check number – payee – cash amount (credit) – accounts payable (debit) – description and amount of other debits and credits
General Journal 4 Special journals save much time in recording repetitive transactions and posting to the ledger. 4 However, some transactions do not fit into any of the special journals.
General Journal 4 Every accounting system needs a general journal. 4 What entries are recorded in the general journal? – depreciation – expiration of prepaid insurance – accrual of salaries payable – adjusting and closing entries
General Journal 4 Many companies record sales returns and allowances and purchase returns in the general journal. 4 A credit memorandum is the document issued by the seller for a credit to a customer’s Accounts Receivable.
Purchase Returns and Allowances 4 A debit memorandum is the business document that states that the buyer no longer owes the seller for the amount of the returned purchases. 4 The buyer debits the Accounts Payable to the seller and credits Inventory.
Balancing the Ledgers 4 At the end of the accounting period: 4 Total debits and credits of account balances in the general ledger are equal. 4 Control account balances are equal to the sum of the appropriate subsidiary ledger accounts.