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Chapter Six Demand

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Properties of Demand Functions u Comparative statics analysis of ordinary demand functions -- the study of how ordinary demands x 1 *(p 1,p 2,y) and x 2 *(p 1,p 2,y) change as prices p 1, p 2 and income y change.

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Own-Price Changes u How does x 1 *(p 1,p 2,y) change as p 1 changes, holding p 2 and y constant? u Suppose only p 1 increases, from p 1 ’ to p 1 ’’ and then to p 1 ’’’.

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x1x1 x2x2 p 1 = p 1 ’ Fixed p 2 and y. p 1 x 1 + p 2 x 2 = y Own-Price Changes

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x1x1 x2x2 p 1 = p 1 ’’ p 1 = p 1 ’’’ Fixed p 2 and y. p 1 = p 1 ’ p 1 x 1 + p 2 x 2 = y

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p 1 = p 1 ’ Own-Price Changes Fixed p 2 and y.

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x 1 *(p 1 ’) p1p1 p1’p1’ x1*x1* Own-Price Changes Fixed p 2 and y. p 1 = p 1 ’

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x 1 *(p 1 ’) x 1 *(p 1 ’’) p1p1 x 1 *(p 1 ’) x 1 *(p 1 ’’) p1’p1’ p 1 ’’ x1*x1* Own-Price Changes Fixed p 2 and y.

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x 1 *(p 1 ’’’) x 1 *(p 1 ’) x 1 *(p 1 ’’) p1p1 x 1 *(p 1 ’) x 1 *(p 1 ’’’) x 1 *(p 1 ’’) p1’p1’ p 1 ’’ p 1 ’’’ x1*x1* Own-Price Changes Ordinary demand curve for commodity 1 Fixed p 2 and y.

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Own-Price Changes u What does a p 1 price-offer curve look like for a perfect-complements utility function? Then the ordinary demand functions for commodities 1 and 2 are

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Own-Price Changes With p 2 and y fixed, higher p 1 causes smaller x 1 * and x 2 *. As

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Fixed p 2 and y. Own-Price Changes x1x1 x2x2

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p1p1 x1*x1* Ordinary demand curve for commodity 1 is Fixed p 2 and y. Own-Price Changes x1x1 x2x2 p1’p1’ p 1 ’’ p 1 ’’’ y/p 2

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Own-Price Changes u What does a demand curve look like for a perfect-substitutes utility function? Then the ordinary demand functions for commodities 1 and 2 are

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Own-Price Changes and

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Fixed p 2 and y. Own-Price Changes x2x2 x1x1 p1p1 x1*x1* Fixed p 2 and y. p1’p1’ p 1 = p 1 ’ < p 2 ’ ’

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Fixed p 2 and y. Own-Price Changes x2x2 x1x1 p1p1 x1*x1* Fixed p 2 and y. p1’p1’ p 1 = p 1 ’’ = p 2

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Fixed p 2 and y. Own-Price Changes x2x2 x1x1 p1p1 x1*x1* Fixed p 2 and y. p1’p1’ p 2 = p 1 ’’ p 1 ’’’ Ordinary demand curve for commodity 1

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Own-Price Changes u Usually we ask “Given the price for commodity 1 what is the quantity demanded of commodity 1?” u But we could also ask the inverse question “At what price for commodity 1 would a given quantity of commodity 1 be demanded?”

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Own-Price Changes u Taking quantity demanded as given and then asking what must be price describes the inverse demand function of a commodity.

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Own-Price Changes A Cobb-Douglas example: is the ordinary demand function and is the inverse demand function.

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Own-Price Changes A perfect-complements example: is the ordinary demand function and is the inverse demand function.

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Income Changes u How does the value of x 1 *(p 1,p 2,y) change as y changes, holding both p 1 and p 2 constant?

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Income Changes u A plot of quantity demanded against income is called an Engel curve.

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Income Changes Fixed p 1 and p 2. y’ < y’’ < y’’’ x 1 ’’’ x 1 ’’ x1’x1’ x 2 ’’’ x 2 ’’ x2’x2’ Income offer curve x1*x1* x2*x2* y y x 1 ’’’ x 1 ’’ x1’x1’ x 2 ’’’ x 2 ’’ x2’x2’ y’ y’’ y’’’ y’ y’’ y’’’ Engel curve; good 2 Engel curve; good 1

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Income Changes and Cobb- Douglas Preferences u An example of computing the equations of Engel curves; the Cobb- Douglas case. u The ordinary demand equations are

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Income Changes and Cobb- Douglas Preferences Rearranged to isolate y, these are: Engel curve for good 1 Engel curve for good 2

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Income Changes and Cobb- Douglas Preferences y y x1*x1* x2*x2* Engel curve for good 1 Engel curve for good 2

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Income Changes and Perfectly- Complementary Preferences u Another example of computing the equations of Engel curves; the perfectly-complementary case. u The ordinary demand equations are

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Income Changes and Perfectly- Complementary Preferences Rearranged to isolate y, these are: Engel curve for good 1 Engel curve for good 2

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Income Changes u So far the Engel curves have all been straight lines. Q: Is this true in general? u A: No. Engel curves are straight lines if the consumer’s preferences are homothetic.

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Homotheticity u A consumer’s preferences are homothetic if and only if for every k > 0. u That is, the consumer’s MRS is the same anywhere on a straight line drawn from the origin. (x 1,x 2 ) (y 1,y 2 ) (kx 1,kx 2 ) (ky 1,ky 2 )

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Income Effects u A good for which quantity demanded rises with income is called normal. u Therefore a normal good’s Engel curve is positively sloped.

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Income Effects u A good for which quantity demanded falls as income increases is called income inferior. u Therefore an income inferior good’s Engel curve is negatively sloped.

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Income Changes; Good 2 Is Normal, Good 1 Becomes Income Inferior x2x2 x1x1 x1*x1* x2*x2* y y Engel curve for good 2 Engel curve for good 1

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Ordinary Goods u A good is called ordinary if the quantity demanded of it always increases as its own price decreases.

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Giffen Goods u If, for some values of its own price, the quantity demanded of a good rises as its own-price increases then the good is called Giffen.

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Ordinary Goods Fixed p 2 and y. x1x1 x2x2

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Cross-Price Effects u If an increase in p 2 –increases demand for commodity 1 then commodity 1 is a gross substitute for commodity 2. – reduces demand for commodity 1 then commodity 1 is a gross complement for commodity 2.

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