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European Integration  Govt 1183  Lecture three—historical background  Feb 8--2007.

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Presentation on theme: "European Integration  Govt 1183  Lecture three—historical background  Feb 8--2007."— Presentation transcript:

1 European Integration  Govt 1183  Lecture three—historical background  Feb 8--2007

2 The Nature of Political Membership  (i) Security  (ii) Wealth  (iii) Identity

3 The United States  (i) Articles of Confederation 1781 (1777)  (ii) US Constitution 1788  (iii) Anglo-American War 1812  (iv) US Civil War



6 Theories of Integration  ACTORS  Euro-centric actors—Jean Monnet et al  State-Centric—(a) Statesmen seeking security and welfare for their state; and (b) Politicians seeking a place or position.  Business-Centric;  Demos-Centric—role of intellectual elites; role of the people.

7 Theories of Integration  CAUSES  (i) War—internal; external  (II) Economic Well-being

8 Theories of Integration  METHODS  (i) Neo-functionalism (“Monnet Method”)  (ii) Intergovernmentalism.


10  "I wish to speak to you today about the tragedy of Europe. (...) Yet all the while there is a remedy which, if it were generally and spontaneously adopted by the great majority of people in many lands, would as if by a miracle transform the whole scene, and would in a few years make all Europe, or the greater part of it, as free and as happy as Switzerland is today. What is this sovereign remedy? It is to recreate the European Family, or as much of it as we can, and to provide it with a structure under which it can dwell in peace, in safety and in freedom. We must build a kind of United States of Europe. (...) The first step in the recreation of the European Family must be a partnership between France and Germany."  Winston Churchill Speech at Zurich University 19th September 1946 

11 “The Lives and Teachings of the European Saints”  Alan Milward, “The European Rescue of the Nation-State” (Routledge 1999)




15 Milward’s Skepticism  “The founding fathers of the EC appear in most histories as the harbingers of a new order in which the nation holds no place.”  “Far from renouncing the nation- state…[they recognized]…the need for those limited surrenders of national sovereignty through which the nation- state and WE were jointly strengthened.”


17 Treaty of Rome Preamble [Belgium, Germany, France, Italy, Lux., and the Neths.] Determined to lay the foundations of an ever closer union among the peoples of Europe, Resolved to ensure the economic and social progress of their countries by common action to eliminate the barriers which divide Europe, Affirming as the essential objective of their efforts the constant improvement of the living and working conditions of their peoples, Recognising that the removal of existing obstacles calls for concerted action in order to guarantee steady expansion, balanced trade and fair competition, Anxious to strengthen the unity of their economies and to ensure their harmonious development by reducing the differences existing between the various regions and the backwardness of the less favoured regions, Desiring to contribute, by means of a common commercial policy, to the progressive abolition of restrictions on international trade, Intending to confirm the solidarity which binds Europe and the overseas countries and desiring to ensure the development of their prosperity, in accordance with the principles of the Charter of the United Nations, Resolved by thus pooling their resources to preserve and strengthen peace and liberty, and calling upon the other peoples of Europe who share their ideal to join in their efforts, Have decided to create a European Economic Community

18 Treaty of Rome (1957)  The activities of the Community shall include…:  (a) the elimination as between Member States, of customs duties and quantitative restrictions on the import and export of goods, and of all other measures having equivalent effect;  (b) a common commercial policy;  (c) an internal market characterized by the abolition, as between Member States, of obstacles to the free movement of goods, persons, services and capital;  (e) a common policy in the sphere of agriculture and fisheries;  (h) the approximation of the laws of the Member States to the extent required for the functioning of the common market;  (i) a policy in the social sphere comprising a European Social Fund;  (j) the strengthening of economic and social cohesion;

19 Political Structure of the EU.  Commission—Supranational.  Council of Ministers—Intergovernmental.  Parliament—Supranational.  Court—Supranational.

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