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**INCOME AND SUBSTITUTION EFFECTS**

Chapter 5 INCOME AND SUBSTITUTION EFFECTS MICROECONOMIC THEORY BASIC PRINCIPLES AND EXTENSIONS EIGHTH EDITION WALTER NICHOLSON Copyright ©2002 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.

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Demand Functions The optimal levels of X1,X2,…,Xn can be expressed as functions of all prices and income These can be expressed as n demand functions: X1* = d1(P1,P2,…,Pn,I) X2* = d2(P1,P2,…,Pn,I) • Xn* = dn(P1,P2,…,Pn,I)

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**Xi* = di(P1,P2,…,Pn,I) = di(tP1,tP2,…,tPn,tI)**

Homogeneity If we were to double all prices and income, the optimal quantities demanded will not change Doubling prices and income leaves the budget constraint unchanged Xi* = di(P1,P2,…,Pn,I) = di(tP1,tP2,…,tPn,tI) Individual demand functions are homogeneous of degree zero in all prices and income

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**Homogeneity With a Cobb-Douglas utility function**

utility = U(X,Y) = X0.3Y0.7 the demand functions are Note that a doubling of both prices and income would leave X* and Y* unaffected

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**Homogeneity With a CES utility function utility = U(X,Y) = X0.5 + Y0.5**

the demand functions are Note that a doubling of both prices and income would leave X* and Y* unaffected

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Changes in Income An increase in income will cause the budget constraint out in a parallel manner Since PX/PY does not change, the MRS will stay constant as the worker moves to higher levels of satisfaction

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Increase in Income If both X and Y increase as income rises, X and Y are normal goods Quantity of Y As income rises, the individual chooses to consume more X and Y C U3 B U2 A U1 Quantity of X

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Increase in Income If X decreases as income rises, X is an inferior good As income rises, the individual chooses to consume less X and more Y Quantity of Y C U3 Note that the indifference curves do not have to be “oddly” shaped. The assumption of a diminishing MRS is obeyed. B U2 A U1 Quantity of X

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**Normal and Inferior Goods**

A good Xi for which Xi/I 0 over some range of income is a normal good in that range A good Xi for which Xi/I < 0 over some range of income is an inferior good in that range

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Engel’s Law Using Belgian data from 1857, Engel found an empirical generalization about consumer behavior The proportion of total expenditure devoted to food declines as income rises food is a necessity whose consumption rises less rapidly than income

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**Substitution & Income Effects**

Even if the individual remained on the same indifference curve when the price changes, his optimal choice will change because the MRS must equal the new price ratio the substitution effect The price change alters the individual’s “real” income and therefore he must move to a new indifference curve the income effect

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**Changes in a Good’s Price**

A change in the price of a good alters the slope of the budget constraint it also changes the MRS at the consumer’s utility-maximizing choices When the price changes, two effects come into play substitution effect income effect

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**Changes in a Good’s Price**

U1 A Suppose the consumer is maximizing utility at point A. Quantity of Y U2 B If the price of good X falls, the consumer will maximize utility at point B. Quantity of X Total increase in X

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**Changes in a Good’s Price**

Quantity of Y To isolate the substitution effect, we hold “real” income constant but allow the relative price of good X to change C Substitution effect The substitution effect is the movement from point A to point C B The individual substitutes good X for good Y because it is now relatively cheaper A U2 U1 Quantity of X

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**Changes in a Good’s Price**

Quantity of Y The income effect occurs because the individual’s “real” income changes when the price of good X changes Income effect The income effect is the movement from point C to point B B If X is a normal good, the individual will buy more because “real” income increased A C U2 U1 Quantity of X

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**Changes in a Good’s Price**

Quantity of Y An increase in the price of good X means that the budget constraint gets steeper C The substitution effect is the movement from point A to point C Substitution effect A Income effect The income effect is the movement from point C to point B B U1 U2 Quantity of X

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**Price Changes for Normal Goods**

If a good is normal, substitution and income effects reinforce one another When price falls, both effects lead to a rise in QD When price rises, both effects lead to a drop in QD

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**Price Changes for Inferior Goods**

If a good is inferior, substitution and income effects move in opposite directions The combined effect is indeterminate When price rises, the substitution effect leads to a drop in QD, but the income effect leads to a rise in QD When price falls, the substitution effect leads to a rise in QD, but the income effect leads to a fall in QD

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Giffen’s Paradox If the income effect of a price change is strong enough, there could be a positive relationship between price and QD An increase in price leads to a drop in real income Since the good is inferior, a drop in income causes QD to rise Thus, a rise in price leads to a rise in QD

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**Summary of Income & Substitution Effects**

Utility maximization implies that (for normal goods) a fall in price leads to an increase in QD The substitution effect causes more to be purchased as the individual moves along an indifference curve The income effect causes more to be purchased because the resulting rise in purchasing power allows the individual to move to a higher indifference curve

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**Summary of Income & Substitution Effects**

Utility maximization implies that (for normal goods) a rise in price leads to a decline in QD The substitution effect causes less to be purchased as the individual moves along an indifference curve The income effect causes less to be purchased because the resulting drop in purchasing power moves the individual to a lower indifference curve

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**Summary of Income & Substitution Effects**

Utility maximization implies that (for inferior goods) no definite prediction can be made for changes in price The substitution effect and income effect move in opposite directions If the income effect outweighs the substitution effect, we have a case of Giffen’s paradox

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**The Individual’s Demand Curve**

An individual’s demand for X1 depends on preferences, all prices, and income: X1* = d1(P1,P2,…,Pn,I) It may be convenient to graph the individual’s demand for X1 assuming that income and the prices of other goods are held constant

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**The Individual’s Demand Curve**

Quantity of Y As the price of X falls... PX X1 PX1 U1 I = PX1 + PY X2 PX2 U2 I = PX2 + PY X3 PX3 U3 I = PX3 + PY dX …quantity of X demanded rises. Quantity of X Quantity of X

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**The Individual’s Demand Curve**

An individual demand curve shows the relationship between the price of a good and the quantity of that good purchased by an individual assuming that all other determinants of demand are held constant

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**Shifts in the Demand Curve**

Three factors are held constant when a demand curve is derived income prices of other goods the individual’s preferences If any of these factors change, the demand curve will shift to a new position

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**Shifts in the Demand Curve**

A movement along a given demand curve is caused by a change in the price of the good called a change in quantity demanded A shift in the demand curve is caused by a change in income, prices of other goods, or preferences called a change in demand

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**Compensated Demand Curves**

The actual level of utility varies along the demand curve As the price of X falls, the individual moves to higher indifference curves It is assumed that nominal income is held constant as the demand curve is derived This means that “real” income rises as the price of X falls

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**Compensated Demand Curves**

An alternative approach holds real income (or utility) constant while examining reactions to changes in PX The effects of the price change are “compensated” so as to constrain the individual to remain on the same indifference curve Reactions to price changes include only substitution effects

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**Compensated Demand Curves**

A compensated (Hicksian) demand curve shows the relationship between the price of a good and the quantity purchased assuming that other prices and utility are held constant The compensated demand curve is a two-dimensional representation of the compensated demand function X* = hX(PX,PY,U)

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**Compensated Demand Curves**

Holding utility constant, as price falls... Quantity of Y PX X1 PX1 hX …quantity demanded rises. X2 PX2 X3 PX3 U2 Quantity of X Quantity of X

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**Compensated & Uncompensated Demand**

PX X2 PX2 At PX2, the curves intersect because the individual’s income is just sufficient to attain utility level U2 dX hX Quantity of X

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**Compensated & Uncompensated Demand**

X1* X1 PX1 At prices above PX2, income compensation is positive because the individual needs some help to remain on U2 PX PX2 dX hX Quantity of X

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**Compensated & Uncompensated Demand**

PX X3* X3 PX3 At prices below PX2, income compensation is negative to prevent an increase in utility from a lower price PX2 dX hX Quantity of X

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**Compensated & Uncompensated Demand**

For a normal good, the compensated demand curve is less responsive to price changes than is the uncompensated demand curve the uncompensated demand curve reflects both income and substitution effects the compensated demand curve reflects only substitution effects

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**Compensated Demand Functions**

Suppose that utility is given by utility = U(X,Y) = X0.5Y0.5 The Marshallian demand functions are X = I/2PX Y = I/2PY The indirect utility function is

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**Compensated Demand Functions**

To obtain the compensated demand functions, we can solve the indirect utility function for I and then substitute into the Marshallian demand functions

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**Compensated Demand Functions**

Demand now depends on utility rather than income Increases in PX reduce the amount of X demanded only a substitution effect

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**A Mathematical Examination of a Change in Price**

Our goal is to examine how the demand for good X changes when PX changes dX/PX Differentiation of the first-order conditions from utility maximization can be performed to solve for this derivative However, this approach is cumbersome and provides little economic insight

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**A Mathematical Examination of a Change in Price**

Instead, we will use an indirect approach Remember the expenditure function minimum expenditure = E(PX,PY,U) Then, by definition hX (PX,PY,U) = dX [PX,PY,E(PX,PY,U)] Note that the two demand functions are equal when income is exactly what is needed to attain the required utility level

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**A Mathematical Examination of a Change in Price**

hX (PX,PY,U) = dX [PX,PY,E(PX,PY,U)] We can differentiate the compensated demand function and get

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**A Mathematical Examination of a Change in Price**

The first term is the slope of the compensated demand curve This is the mathematical representation of the substitution effect

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**A Mathematical Examination of a Change in Price**

The second term measures the way in which changes in PX affect the demand for X through changes in necessary expenditure levels This is the mathematical representation of the income effect

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**The Slutsky Equation The substitution effect can be written as**

The income effect can be written as

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**The Slutsky Equation Note that E/PX = X**

A $1 increase in PX raises necessary expenditures by X dollars $1 extra must be paid for each unit of X purchased

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The Slutsky Equation The utility-maximization hypothesis shows that the substitution and income effects arising from a price change can be represented by

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**The Slutsky Equation The first term is the substitution effect**

always negative as long as MRS is diminishing the slope of the compensated demand curve will always be negative

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**The Slutsky Equation The second term is the income effect**

if X is a normal good, then X/I > 0 the entire income effect is negative if X is an inferior good, then X/I < 0 the entire income effect is positive

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**Revealed Preference & the Substitution Effect**

The theory of revealed preference was proposed by Paul Samuelson in the late 1940s The theory defines a principle of rationality based on observed behavior and then uses it to approximate an individual’s utility function

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**Revealed Preference & the Substitution Effect**

Consider two bundles of goods: A and B If the individual can afford to purchase either bundle but chooses A, we say that A had been revealed preferred to B Under any other price-income arrangement, B can never be revealed preferred to A

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**Revealed Preference & the Substitution Effect**

Quantity of Y Suppose that, when the budget constraint is given by I1, A is chosen A must still be preferred to B when income is I3 (because both A and B are available) A If B is chosen, the budget constraint must be similar to that given by I2 where A is not available B I2 I1 I3 Quantity of X

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**Negativity of the Substitution Effect**

Suppose that an individual is indifferent between two bundles: C and D Let PXC,PYC be the prices at which bundle C is chosen Let PXD,PYD be the prices at which bundle D is chosen

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**Negativity of the Substitution Effect**

Since the individual is indifferent between C and D When C is chosen, D must cost at least as much as C PXCXC + PYCYC ≤ PXDXD + PYDYD When D is chosen, C must cost at least as much as D PXDXD + PYDYD ≤ PXCXC + PYCYC

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**Negativity of the Substitution Effect**

Rearranging, we get PXC(XC - XD) + PYC(YC -YD) ≤ 0 PXD(XD - XC) + PYD(YD -YC) ≤ 0 Adding these together, we get (PXC – PXD)(XC - XD) + (PYC – PYD)(YC - YD) ≤ 0

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**Negativity of the Substitution Effect**

Suppose that only the price of X changes (PYC = PYD) (PXC – PXD)(XC - XD) ≤ 0 This implies that price and quantity move in opposite direction when utility is held constant the substitution effect is negative

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**Mathematical Generalization**

If, at prices Pi0 bundle Xi0 is chosen instead of bundle Xi1 (and bundle Xi1 is affordable), then Bundle 0 has been “revealed preferred” to bundle 1

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**Mathematical Generalization**

Consequently, at prices that prevail when bundle 1 is chosen (Pi1), then Bundle 0 must be more expensive than bundle 1

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**Strong Axiom of Revealed Preference**

If commodity bundle 0 is revealed preferred to bundle 1, and if bundle 1 is revealed preferred to bundle 2, and if bundle 2 is revealed preferred to bundle 3,…,and if bundle k-1 is revealed preferred to bundle k, then bundle k cannot be revealed preferred to bundle 0

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**expenditure = E(PX,PY,U0)**

Consumer Welfare The expenditure function shows the minimum expenditure necessary to achieve a desired utility level (given prices) The function can be denoted as expenditure = E(PX,PY,U0) where U0 is the “target” level of utility

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Consumer Welfare One way to evaluate the welfare cost of a price increase (from PX0 to PX1) would be to compare the expenditures required to achieve U0 under these two situations expenditure at PX0 = E0 = E(PX0,PY,U0) expenditure at PX1 = E1 = E(PX1,PY,U0)

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Consumer Welfare The loss in welfare would be measured as the increase in expenditures required to achieve U0 welfare loss = E0 – E1 Because E1 > E0, this change would be negative the price increase makes the person worse off

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Consumer Welfare Remember that the derivative of the expenditure function with respect to PX is the compensated demand function (hX) The change in necessary expenditures brought about by a change in PX is given by the quantity of X demanded

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Consumer Welfare To evaluate the change in expenditure caused by a price change (from PX0 to PX1), we must integrate the compensated demand function This integral is the area to the left of the compensated demand curve between PX0 and PX1

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**Consumer Welfare When the price rises from PX0 to PX1,**

the consumer suffers a loss in welfare welfare loss PX1 X1 PX0 X0 hX Quantity of X

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Consumer Welfare Because a price change generally involves both income and substitution effects, it is unclear which compensated demand curve should be used Do we use the compensated demand curve for the original target utility (U0) or the new level of utility after the price change (U1)?

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Consumer Welfare PX When the price rises from PX0 to PX1, the actual market reaction will be to move from A to C The consumer’s utility falls from U0 to U1 C PX1 A PX0 dX hX(U0) hX(U1) X1 X0 Quantity of X

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Consumer Welfare PX Is the consumer’s loss in welfare best described by area PX1BAPX0 [using hX(U0)] or by area PX1CDPX0 [using hX(U1)]? Is U0 or U1 the appropriate utility target? C B PX1 A PX0 D dX hX(U0) hX(U1) X1 X0 Quantity of X

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Consumer Welfare PX We can use the Marshallian demand curve as a compromise. The area PX1CAPX0 falls between the sizes of the welfare losses defined by hX(U0) and hX(U1) C B PX1 A PX0 D dX hX(U0) hX(U1) X1 X0 Quantity of X

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**Loss of Consumer Welfare from a Rise in Price**

Suppose that the compensated demand function for X is given by the welfare loss from a price increase from PX = 0.25 to PX = 1 is given by

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**Loss of Consumer Welfare from a Rise in Price**

If we assume that the initial utility level (V) is equal to 2, loss = 4(1)0.5 – 4(0.25)0.5 = 2 If we assume that the utility level (V) falls to 1 after the price increase (and used this level to calculate welfare loss), loss = 2(1)0.5 – 2(0.25)0.5 = 1

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**Loss of Consumer Welfare from a Rise in Price**

Suppose that we use the Marshallian demand function instead the welfare loss from a price increase from PX = 0.25 to PX = 1 is given by

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**Loss of Consumer Welfare from a Rise in Price**

Because income (I) is equal to 2, loss = 0 – (-1.39) = 1.39 This computed loss from the Marshallian demand function is a compromise between the two amounts computed using the compensated demand functions

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**Important Points to Note:**

Proportional changes in all prices and income do not shift the individual’s budget constraint and therefore do not alter the quantities of goods chosen demand functions are homogeneous of degree zero in all prices and income

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**Important Points to Note:**

When purchasing power changes (income changes but prices remain the same), budget constraints shift for normal goods, an increase in income means that more is purchased for inferior goods, an increase in income means that less is purchased

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**Important Points to Note:**

A fall in the price of a good causes substitution and income effects For a normal good, both effects cause more of the good to be purchased For inferior goods, substitution and income effects work in opposite directions A rise in the price of a good also causes income and substitution effects For normal goods, less will be demanded For inferior goods, the net result is ambiguous

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**Important Points to Note:**

The Marshallian demand curve summarizes the total quantity of a good demanded at each price changes in price prompt movemens along the curve changes in income, prices of other goods, or preferences may cause the demand curve to shift

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**Important Points to Note:**

Compensated demand curves illustrate movements along a given indifference curve for alternative prices these are constructed by holding utility constant they exhibit only the substitution effects from a price change their slope is unambiguously negative (or zero)

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**Important Points to Note:**

Income and substitution effects can be analyzed using the Slutsky equation Income and substitution effects can also be examined using revealed preference The welfare changes that accompany price changes can sometimes be measured by the changing area under the demand curve

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