The Effect of Teacher Intervention of Encoding Strategies Upon Students’ Encoding and Decoding Fluency Linda Lindsey Bridgewater State College 2007.
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The Effect of Teacher Intervention of Encoding Strategies Upon Students’ Encoding and Decoding Fluency Linda Lindsey Bridgewater State College 2007
Abstract Students’ reading fluency can be limited by their encoding and decoding awareness. The students who will be participating in the study are struggling readers in the fourth grade. The school in which they attend is in a small suburban town in southwestern Massachusetts. The students will be introduced to strategies that will enhance spelling patterns and sight word recognition. The researcher will meet three times each week with students for eight weeks. At the beginning of the study, the students will be given a developmental spelling test to determine their knowledge of basic spelling rules and patterns. The measuring instruments that will be used to assess the students’ progress are the Developmental Reading Assessment 4-8 (DRA 4-8), running records, and written story retellings.
Spelling instruction is one of the most debated aspects of the language arts curriculum (Heald-Taylor, 1998).
Review of Literature A child’s deficit in spelling will affect his/her ability to read text fluently (Zutell, 1998). Children with poor spelling skills limit their exposure to spelling patterns that should be encountered in reading of instructional and independent level materials (Laframboise, 1996). A child who has a difficult time decoding words and is a reluctant reader, may also find writing problematic.
Efforts to Solve the Problem There has been a substantial amount of research in the area of developmental spelling instruction. Word study is not a “one size fits all” program of instruction that begins at the same place for all learners (Bear, Invernizzi, Templeton, & Johnson, 2004). Learning is a developmental process; not everyone progresses at the same rate.
Knowledgeable educators have come to know that word study instruction must match the needs of the learner. A student’s spelling provides a window into how he/she believes the system works. By interpreting what students do when they spell, educators can target a specific “zone of proximal development” (Vygotsky, 1981) and plan word study lessons that the student is conceptually ready to master.
Prephonemic (Emergent) Early letter naming (Emergent) Letter naming (Alphabetic) Within-word patterns Syllable juncture Derivational (Bear, et. al., 2004) Research has determined six stages of spelling knowledge:
In order for the students to progress through the various stages of developmental spelling and increase their word knowledge, the educator must allow for the manipulation of words through sorting activities (Zutell, 1998).
While the students are building word knowledge, the teacher must also increase the students’ ability to recognize the words in text through repeated readings, both silent and oral (Rasinski, 2003). Oral readings allow the teacher to gain knowledge of how the students implement learned strategies. As students become more proficient in their reading and spelling their written thoughts develop as well. There is a link between reading and writing and spelling. Children who have increased word attack skills also have better sentence structure and writing fluency (Graham, Harris, Chorzempa, 2002).
Literacy is comprised of different components: orthography, reading, oral language, stories, and writing. This composition of components is referred to as the “Braid of Literacy” (Bear, Invernizzi, Templeton, & Johnson,2004). Each component of the braid needs to be taught when the child is developmentally ready. The strength of the braid becomes stronger as the child acquires more knowledge. (Bear, et. al., 2004)
Intervention and Time Line Students are administered a developmental spelling inventory to determine the instructional spelling level. Developmental spelling groups meet 3 times a week for 30 minutes over an 8 week period. Word lists are created to reinforce the spelling pattern that is to be internalized. Students complete word sorts and various word activities in order to manipulate sounds and word patterns.
Students are involved with repeated readings, reader’s theater, and reading to book buddies. Students are exposed to as much reading and writing material as possible. Students produce written story retellings and informal writing activities (thank you notes, letters, and messages to other students).
Materials Used Words Their Way (Bear, et. al.,2004) Word Study Lessons (Fountas & Pinnell, 2004)
Word Sort Activities (Bear, et. al., 2004) Self-check Spelling Activities (Pinnell, & Fountas, 1998) Spelling Word Trays (Bear, et.al., 2004) Games ( Fountas & Pinnell, 2004)
Analyzing the Data Educator needs to analyze: Change in independent and dependent variable Statistical difference in the data Triangulation of data to distinguish the differences of approaches used and effectiveness. How much knowledge was internalized and transferred to daily work.
References Bear, D. R., Invernizzi, M., Templeton, S., Johnson, F.( 2004). Words Their Way, NJ: Prentice Hall Fountas, I.C., & Pinnell, G. S., (2004). Word study lessons: Phonics, spelling, and vocabulary. NH: Heinemann. Graham, S., Harris, K. R., & Chorzempa, B. F. (2002). Contribution of spelling instruction to the spelling, writing, and reading of poor spellers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94(4) 669- 686. Heald-Taylor, B. G. (1998). Three paradigms of spelling instruction in grades 3 to 6. The Reading Teacher, 51(5), 404-412 Pinnell, G. S., & Fountas, I. C. (1998). Word matters: Teaching phonics and spelling in the reading/writing classroom. NH: Heinemann. Rasinski, T. V. (2003). The fluent reader. New York: Scholastic.