CONSTRUCTION. Construction Systems –Early people lived in caves or in the brush --- teepees from animal hides were used –Wood, stone, mud and straw were.
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Presentation on theme: "CONSTRUCTION. Construction Systems –Early people lived in caves or in the brush --- teepees from animal hides were used –Wood, stone, mud and straw were."— Presentation transcript:
Construction Systems –Early people lived in caves or in the brush --- teepees from animal hides were used –Wood, stone, mud and straw were used in construction –The Egyptians built the largest pyramid of almost 500 feet length and made of over two million blocks of limestone, each weighing more than a ton --- 5000 years ago –The Romans started building aqueducts, sewer systems in about 300 BC –One of the greatest contribution of the Romans is the use of arch –Construction means building a structure at the place where it will be used --- construction site –The usable structures in construction are building, bridge, dam, road, and tunnel.
Resources for Construction People –They are needed to design, engineer the structure and to manage the business of construction –Landowner decides that there is a need for a structure –Architects design buildings. They plan how to build a structure and where to place it on the site –Civil engineers work with architects to prepare drawings and to design and foundation –Civil engineers also give details about utilities --- plumbing, heating, air conditioning, and electrical wiring –Structural engineers plan the building’s structure --- it should be strong enough to carry the desired load –General contractors own their own construction companies –Estimators work for the contractor --- prepare a proposal of cost and specifications called a bid
Resources for Construction People –Project managers make sure construction is carried out properly and meets building codes –Tradespeople include carpenters, electricians, plumbers, and masons Information –Information takes the form of plans, bids and specifications –Specifications includes the type of material to be used and the way the foundation will be built –Architects have mechanical and architectural drawings –Engineers have information about building materials and loads the structure will support
Resources for Construction Materials –Concrete, lumber(wood), steel, glass and brick –Concrete is made from stone, sand, water and cement –Cement is a mixture of limestone and clay –Molds of lumber called forms are used to make different shapes from wet concrete –Steel rods/meshes are used to reinforce the brittle concrete –Lumber is used to provide the framework of homes –Steel is used for the framework of skyscrapers, bridges, and towers –Glass lets the light in and adds to the beauty of the structure –Bricks made from clay are made in an oven called a kiln
Resources for Construction Tools and Machines –Special equipment is used for excavating (digging), lifting heavy materials –Robots are useful in dangerous jobs Energy –Construction systems use energy to operate machines and tools –Producing material for construction and transporting to the site consumes energy Capital –A loan for a home is called a mortgage --- paid back over a period of years with interest –Interest is the fee the back charges for the loan
Resources for Construction Time –Air-driven staple guns are replacing hammers and nails –Parts of a structure can be prefabricated in a factory –Modular construction is being used more and more often
Selecting the Site –Land costs can vary from one place to another –Grading(leveling) is needed in hilly areas –Transportation needs have to considered to deliver/ship the goods to the site –The environment must be preserved --- airport –Water and electricity must be available
Preparing the Site –Unwanted buildings must be removed –Wrecking balls or explosives are used to demolish buildings –A surveyor marks the site to show where the structure will be built –A transit is used to measure and lay out angles –An engineer’s level is used to set the elevation of different points