3 Reflection Exercise 2, p. 32/33: Rank order the ESL learners based on: AgeAmount of exposureSociocultural factorsAffective factors, incl. motivationOther factors
4 A short history of L2 and pronunciation research and theories L2 research (in general)Contrastive AnalysisError AnalysisInterlanguage researchPronunciation researchMarkedness theoryLanguage universalsInformation processing theory
5 1. Contrastive analysis Where L1 and L2 are the same: easy to learn Where L1 and L2 are different: difficultFor example:L1 has /l/ and /r/, L2 has /l/ and /r/: easy to learnL1 has /l/ but not /r/, L2 has /l/ and /r/: difficult to learn /r/Negative transfer from L1 plays a role ingeneral segmental features (like aspiration), andsuprasegmental features (like intonation and rhythm)Problem: CA doesn’t always make the correct predictions (e.g., directionality)
6 2. Error analysis and avoidance In addition to contrastive analysis: Error AnalysisWhich predictions are borne out? How difficult are these problems?Error analysis looks at:Interlingual errors (L1 interference)Intralingual errors (e.g., overgeneralization)Developmental errors (similar to L1 acquisition)Problems:EA focuses on what is wrong, not what is rightEA ignores avoidance (e.g., difficult words)
7 3. InterlanguageInterlanguage: The rule-governed and systematic second language knowledge of learnersDevelopment of interlanguage is determined byL1L2UniversalsCommunication strategies (e.g., better performance in more formal situations)
8 4. Markedness theoryIn any pair of sounds, one is more ‘basic’, neutral, frequent, earlier acquired, etc. than the otherOne member of the pair is unmarkedExampleEnglish allows /p, t, k/ and /b, d, g/ in word-final positionBut: German allows only /p, t, k/ in word-final positionSo: English is more marked than German (in this respect)
9 4. Markedness theory Markedness can predict directionality: Word-final /b, d, g/ in English (marked) are more difficult to pronounce for L1 German speakersWord-final /p, t, k/ in German (unmarked) is easier to pronounce for L1 English speakersContrastive analysis does not make such predictions about directionality
10 4. Markedness theory/ŋ/ can occur in syllable-final position in English (sing)/ŋ/ can occur in syllable-final and syllable-initial position in Vietnamese (ngang)Which language is more marked (with respect to /ŋ/)?Which learner has more difficulty?English speaker learning Vietnamese, orVietnamese speaker learning English
11 5. Language universalsLanguage universals: properties all languages have in commonPrinciples and parameters (Chomsky)Implicational universalsExamples of universalsAll languages have consonants and vowelsConsonants contrast in manner, voicing, etc.
12 Fricatives are more marked than nasals. Stops are unmarked. 5. Language universalsFricatives are more marked than nasals. Stops are unmarked.Implicational hierarchies:stops > nasals > fricativesLanguages that have nasals also have stopsLanguages that have fricatives also have nasals and stopsPredictions for acquisitionStops are acquired before nasals; nasals are acquired before fricativesInitially, fricatives are replaced by stops
13 5. Language universalsDetermine whether and how the following universals may affect ESL pronunciation teachingStops > fricatives > affricatesIf a language has voiced obstruent phonemes (/b, d, g/), it will also have voiceless obstruent phonemes (/p, t, k/).Front vowel phonemes are generally unrounded, while non-low back vowel phonemes are generally rounded.What does this imply for rounded front vowels?
14 6. Information processing theory: Schemata Tendency to interpret new information in terms of existing knowledge structures: schemataE.g., schema of going to a restaurantSchemata also influence processing of phonology:A L1 Spanish speaker may ‘hear’ eski instead of ski, because that what s/he expects to hear
15 6. Information processing theory Automatic vs. controlled Automatic vs. controlled processingControlled processing requires attention and awarenessAutomatic processing is not controlled or inhibited by other processesCf. learning to drive a car with manual transmissionWith controlled processing you have to think a lot; it’s easy to make a mistake, like switching the order of steps or forgetting a step (e.g., use the clutch)With automatic processing you don’t have to think; however, it’s difficult to change automatic behavior
16 6. Information processing theory: Modes of learning Three modes of learning1. Accretion (or accommodation): adding new information2. Restructuring: changing the system based on existing patterns3. Tuning: further modify the systemExample: L1 Portuguese, L2 EnglishPortuguese has /i, e, ɛ, a, ɔ, o, u/Accretion: add /ɪ, æ, ʊ, ʌ/Restructure: /i, e, u/ may shift positionFine-tuning: approaching native pronunciation
17 New directions So far: Focus on individual sounds (vowels, consonants) More recent research:IntonationRhythmConnected speechVoice qualityWe’ll discuss these in more detail later
18 IntonationAmerican English has a three tone system of intonation contoursOther languages, like Spanish, may have only twoTo the ear of a NAE speaker, this sounds uninterested and boredNAE speakerThis is a bookJapanese speaker
19 Rhythm Stressed syllables are longer than unstressed syllables This is a common problem for ESL learnersIt is possible to learn to produce the appropriate rhythm, but it may take extensive practiceE.g., scaffolding from single items, to phrases, to longer stretches of speech
20 Connected speechSounds are affected by other sounds that come before or after them, e.g.,Flapping rule (e.g., water)Vowel reduction in unstressed syllablesConsonant cluster simplification (e.g., sixth)
21 Voice quality Pitch and loudness Spanish and Japanese speakers tend to speak with higher pitch and lower volume than AmericansLanguage specific and sociocultural factors
22 Derwing & Munro (2005) Questions? Issues in research on pronunciation teaching that interest youHow would they affect your teaching practices?…?
23 Next week Read Chapter 3 (The consonant system) Exercises 2 (p. 30), 1 (p. 31)Bring a hand mirror