Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Research on teaching and learning pronunciation

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Research on teaching and learning pronunciation"— Presentation transcript:

1 Research on teaching and learning pronunciation
LCD720 – 02/04/09 Research on teaching and learning pronunciation

2 Announcements New classroom: RA 202

3 Reflection Exercise 2, p. 32/33: Rank order the ESL learners based on:
Age Amount of exposure Sociocultural factors Affective factors, incl. motivation Other factors

4 A short history of L2 and pronunciation research and theories
L2 research (in general) Contrastive Analysis Error Analysis Interlanguage research Pronunciation research Markedness theory Language universals Information processing theory

5 1. Contrastive analysis Where L1 and L2 are the same: easy to learn
Where L1 and L2 are different: difficult For example: L1 has /l/ and /r/, L2 has /l/ and /r/: easy to learn L1 has /l/ but not /r/, L2 has /l/ and /r/: difficult to learn /r/ Negative transfer from L1 plays a role in general segmental features (like aspiration), and suprasegmental features (like intonation and rhythm) Problem: CA doesn’t always make the correct predictions (e.g., directionality)

6 2. Error analysis and avoidance
In addition to contrastive analysis: Error Analysis Which predictions are borne out? How difficult are these problems? Error analysis looks at: Interlingual errors (L1 interference) Intralingual errors (e.g., overgeneralization) Developmental errors (similar to L1 acquisition) Problems: EA focuses on what is wrong, not what is right EA ignores avoidance (e.g., difficult words)

7 3. Interlanguage Interlanguage: The rule-governed and systematic second language knowledge of learners Development of interlanguage is determined by L1 L2 Universals Communication strategies (e.g., better performance in more formal situations)

8 4. Markedness theory In any pair of sounds, one is more ‘basic’, neutral, frequent, earlier acquired, etc. than the other One member of the pair is unmarked Example English allows /p, t, k/ and /b, d, g/ in word-final position But: German allows only /p, t, k/ in word-final position So: English is more marked than German (in this respect)

9 4. Markedness theory Markedness can predict directionality:
Word-final /b, d, g/ in English (marked) are more difficult to pronounce for L1 German speakers Word-final /p, t, k/ in German (unmarked) is easier to pronounce for L1 English speakers Contrastive analysis does not make such predictions about directionality

10 4. Markedness theory /ŋ/ can occur in syllable-final position in English (sing) /ŋ/ can occur in syllable-final and syllable-initial position in Vietnamese (ngang) Which language is more marked (with respect to /ŋ/)? Which learner has more difficulty? English speaker learning Vietnamese, or Vietnamese speaker learning English

11 5. Language universals Language universals: properties all languages have in common Principles and parameters (Chomsky) Implicational universals Examples of universals All languages have consonants and vowels Consonants contrast in manner, voicing, etc.

12 Fricatives are more marked than nasals. Stops are unmarked.
5. Language universals Fricatives are more marked than nasals. Stops are unmarked. Implicational hierarchies: stops > nasals > fricatives Languages that have nasals also have stops Languages that have fricatives also have nasals and stops Predictions for acquisition Stops are acquired before nasals; nasals are acquired before fricatives Initially, fricatives are replaced by stops

13 5. Language universals Determine whether and how the following universals may affect ESL pronunciation teaching Stops > fricatives > affricates If a language has voiced obstruent phonemes (/b, d, g/), it will also have voiceless obstruent phonemes (/p, t, k/). Front vowel phonemes are generally unrounded, while non-low back vowel phonemes are generally rounded. What does this imply for rounded front vowels?

14 6. Information processing theory: Schemata
Tendency to interpret new information in terms of existing knowledge structures: schemata E.g., schema of going to a restaurant Schemata also influence processing of phonology: A L1 Spanish speaker may ‘hear’ eski instead of ski, because that what s/he expects to hear

15 6. Information processing theory Automatic vs. controlled
Automatic vs. controlled processing Controlled processing requires attention and awareness Automatic processing is not controlled or inhibited by other processes Cf. learning to drive a car with manual transmission With controlled processing you have to think a lot; it’s easy to make a mistake, like switching the order of steps or forgetting a step (e.g., use the clutch) With automatic processing you don’t have to think; however, it’s difficult to change automatic behavior

16 6. Information processing theory: Modes of learning
Three modes of learning 1. Accretion (or accommodation): adding new information 2. Restructuring: changing the system based on existing patterns 3. Tuning: further modify the system Example: L1 Portuguese, L2 English Portuguese has /i, e, ɛ, a, ɔ, o, u/ Accretion: add /ɪ, æ, ʊ, ʌ/ Restructure: /i, e, u/ may shift position Fine-tuning: approaching native pronunciation

17 New directions So far: Focus on individual sounds (vowels, consonants)
More recent research: Intonation Rhythm Connected speech Voice quality We’ll discuss these in more detail later

18 Intonation American English has a three tone system of intonation contours Other languages, like Spanish, may have only two To the ear of a NAE speaker, this sounds uninterested and bored NAE speaker This is a book Japanese speaker        

19 Rhythm Stressed syllables are longer than unstressed syllables
This is a common problem for ESL learners It is possible to learn to produce the appropriate rhythm, but it may take extensive practice E.g., scaffolding from single items, to phrases, to longer stretches of speech

20 Connected speech Sounds are affected by other sounds that come before or after them, e.g., Flapping rule (e.g., water) Vowel reduction in unstressed syllables Consonant cluster simplification (e.g., sixth)

21 Voice quality Pitch and loudness
Spanish and Japanese speakers tend to speak with higher pitch and lower volume than Americans Language specific and sociocultural factors

22 Derwing & Munro (2005) Questions?
Issues in research on pronunciation teaching that interest you How would they affect your teaching practices? …?

23 Next week Read Chapter 3 (The consonant system)
Exercises 2 (p. 30), 1 (p. 31) Bring a hand mirror

Download ppt "Research on teaching and learning pronunciation"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google