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Lecture 3#1#1 Hubs, Bridges and Switches Lecture 3.

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Presentation on theme: "Lecture 3#1#1 Hubs, Bridges and Switches Lecture 3."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lecture 3#1#1 Hubs, Bridges and Switches Lecture 3

2 #2#2 Interconnecting LANs Q: Why not just one big LAN?  Limited amount of supportable traffic: on single LAN, all stations must share bandwidth  limited length: 802.3 (Ethernet) specifies maximum cable length  large “collision domain” (can collide with many stations)  limited number of stations: 802.5 (token ring) have token passing delays at each station

3 Lecture 3#3#3 Hubs  Physical Layer devices: essentially repeaters operating at bit levels: repeat received bits on one interface to all other interfaces  Hubs can be arranged in a hierarchy (or multi-tier design), with backbone hub at its top

4 Lecture 3#4#4 Hubs (more)  Each connected LAN referred to as LAN segment  Hubs do not isolate collision domains: node may collide with any node residing at any segment in LAN  Hub Advantages: m simple, inexpensive device m Multi-tier provides graceful degradation: portions of the LAN continue to operate if one hub malfunctions m extends maximum distance between node pairs (100m per Hub)

5 Lecture 3#5#5 Hub limitations  single collision domain results in no increase in max throughput m multi-tier throughput same as single segment throughput  individual LAN restrictions pose limits on number of nodes in same collision domain and on total allowed geographical coverage  cannot connect different Ethernet types (e.g., 10BaseT and 100baseT) Why?

6 Lecture 3#6#6 Bridges  Link Layer devices: operate on Ethernet frames, examining frame header and selectively forwarding frame based on its destination  Bridge isolates collision domains since it buffers frames  When frame is to be forwarded on segment, bridge uses CSMA/CD to access segment and transmit

7 Lecture 3#7#7 Bridges (more)  Bridge advantages: m Isolates collision domains resulting in higher total max throughput, and does not limit the number of nodes nor geographical coverage m Can connect different type Ethernet since it is a store and forward device m Transparent: no need for any change to hosts LAN adapters

8 Lecture 3#8#8 Backbone Bridge

9 Lecture 3#9#9 Interconnection Without Backbone  Not recommended for two reasons: - single point of failure at Computer Science hub - all traffic between EE and SE must path over CS segment

10 Lecture 3#10 Bridges: frame filtering, forwarding  bridges filter packets m same-LAN -segment frames not forwarded onto other LAN segments  forwarding: m how to know on which LAN segment to forward frame?

11 Lecture 3#11 Bridge Filtering  bridges learn which hosts can be reached through which interfaces: maintain filtering tables m when frame received, bridge “learns” location of sender: incoming LAN segment m records sender location in filtering table  filtering table entry: m (Node LAN Address, Bridge Interface, Time Stamp) m stale entries in Filtering Table dropped (TTL can be 60 minutes)

12 Lecture 3#12 Bridge Operation  bridge procedure(in_MAC, in_port,out_MAC) Set filtering table (in_MAC) to in_port /*learning*/ lookup in filtering table (out_MAC) receive out_port if (out_port not valid) /* no entry found for destination */ then flood; /* forward on all but the interface on which the frame arrived*/ if (in_port = out_port) /*destination is on LAN on which frame was received */ then drop the frame Otherwise (out_port is valid) /*entry found for destination */ then forward the frame on interface indicate

13 Lecture 3#13 Bridge Learning: example Suppose C sends frame to D and D replies back with frame to C  C sends frame, bridge has no info about D, so floods to both LANs m bridge notes that C is on port 1 m frame ignored on upper LAN m frame received by D

14 Lecture 3#14 Bridge Learning: example  D generates reply to C, sends m bridge sees frame from D m bridge notes that D is on interface 2 m bridge knows C on interface 1, so selectively forwards frame out via interface 1 C 1

15 Lecture 3#15 What will happen with loops? Incorrect learning A B 1 1 2 2 A, 1 2 2

16 Lecture 3#16 What will happen with loops? Frame looping A C 1 1 2 2 C,??

17 Lecture 3#17 What will happen with loops? Frame looping A B 1 1 2 2 B,2 B,1

18 Lecture 3#18 Introducing Spanning Tree  Allow a path between every LAN without causing loops (loop-free environment)  Bridges communicate with special configuration messages (BPDUs)  Standardized by IEEE 802.1D N ote: redundant paths are good, active redundant paths are bad (they cause loops)

19 Lecture 3#19 Spanning Tree Requirements  Each bridge is assigned a unique identifier  A broadcast address for bridges on a LAN  A unique port identifier for all ports on all bridges m MAC address m Bridge id + port number

20 Lecture 3#20 Spanning Tree Concepts: Root Bridge  The bridge with the lowest bridge ID value is elected the root bridge  One root bridge chosen among all bridges  Every other bridge calculates a path to the root bridge

21 Lecture 3#21 Spanning Tree Concepts: Path Cost  A cost associated with each port on each bridge m default is 1  The cost associated with transmission onto the LAN connected to the port  Can be manually or automatically assigned  Can be used to alter the path to the root bridge

22 Lecture 3#22 Spanning Tree Concepts: Root Port  The port on each bridge that is on the path towards the root bridge  The root port is part of the lowest cost path towards the root bridge  If port costs are equal on a bridge, the port with the lowest ID becomes root port

23 Lecture 3#23 Spanning Tree Concepts: Root Path Cost  The minimum cost path to the root bridge  The cost starts at the root bridge  Each bridge computes root path cost independently based on their view of the network

24 Lecture 3#24 Spanning Tree Concepts: Designated Bridge  Only one bridge on a LAN at one time is chosen the designated bridge  This bridge provides the minimum cost path to the root bridge for the LAN  Only the designated bridge passes frames towards the root bridge

25 Lecture 3#25 Example Spanning Tree B3 B5 B7 B2 B1 B6 B4 Protocol operation: 1.Picks a root 2.For each LAN, picks a designated bridge that is closest to the root. 3.All bridges on a LAN send packets towards the root via the designated bridge. B8

26 Lecture 3#26 Example Spanning Tree B3 B5 B7 B2 B1 B6 B4 Root B8 B2B4B5B7 B8 B1 Spanning Tree: Designated Bridge root port

27 Lecture 3#27 Spanning Tree Algorithm: An Overview  1. Determine the root bridge among all bridges  2. Each bridge determines its root port m The port in the direction of the root bridge  3. Determine the designated bridge on each LAN m The bridge which accepts frames to forward towards the root bridge m The frames are sent on the root port of the designated bridge

28 Lecture 3#28 Spanning Tree Algorithm: Selecting Root Bridge  Initially, each bridge considers itself to be the root bridge  Bridges send BDPU frames to its attached LANs m The bridge and port ID of the sending bridge m The bridge and port ID of the bridge the sending bridge considers root m The root path cost for the sending bridge  Best one wins m (lowest root ID/cost/priority)

29 Lecture 3#29 Spanning Tree Algorithm: Selecting Root Ports  Each bridge selects one of its ports which has the minimal cost to the root bridge  In case of a tie, the lowest uplink (transmitter) bridge ID is used  In case of another tie, the lowest port ID is used

30 Lecture 3#30 Spanning Tree Algorithm: Select Designated Bridges  Initially, each bridge considers itself to be the designated bridge  Bridges send BDPU frames to its attached LANs m The bridge and port ID of the sending bridge m The bridge and port ID of the bridge the sending bridge considers root m The root path cost for the sending bridge  3. Best one wins m (lowest ID/cost/priority)

31 Lecture 3#31 Forwarding/Blocking State  Root and designated bridges will forward frames to and from their attached LANs  All other ports are in the blocking state

32 Lecture 3#32 Spanning Tree Protocol: Execution B3 B5 B7 B2 B1 B6 B4 B8 (B1,root=B1, dist=0) (B4, root=B1, dist=1) (B6, Root=B1dist=1)

33 Lecture 3#33 Bridges vs. Routers  both store-and-forward devices m routers: network layer devices (examine network layer headers) m bridges are Link Layer devices  routers maintain routing tables, implement routing algorithms  bridges maintain filtering tables, implement filtering, learning and spanning tree algorithms

34 Lecture 3#34 Routers vs. Bridges Bridges + and - + Bridge operation is simpler requiring less processing - Topologies are restricted with bridges: a spanning tree must be built to avoid cycles - Bridges do not offer protection from broadcast storms (endless broadcasting by a host will be forwarded by a bridge)

35 Lecture 3#35 Routers vs. Bridges Routers + and - + arbitrary topologies can be supported, cycling is limited by TTL counters (and good routing protocols) + provide firewall protection against broadcast storms - require IP address configuration (not plug and play) - require higher processing  bridges do well in small (few hundred hosts) while routers used in large networks (thousands of hosts)

36 Lecture 3#36 Ethernet Switches  layer 2 (frame) forwarding, filtering using LAN addresses  Switching: A-to-B and A’- to-B’ simultaneously, no collisions  large number of interfaces  often: individual hosts, star-connected into switch m Ethernet, but no collisions!

37 Lecture 3#37 Ethernet Switches  cut-through switching: frame forwarded from input to output port without awaiting for assembly of entire frame m slight reduction in latency  combinations of shared/dedicated, 10/100/1000 Mbps interfaces

38 Lecture 3#38 Ethernet Switches (more) Dedicated Shared

39 Lecture 3#39 Optional: Wireless LAN and PPP

40 Lecture 3#40 IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN  wireless LANs: untethered (often mobile) networking  IEEE 802.11 standard: m MAC protocol m unlicensed frequency spectrum: 900Mhz, 2.4Ghz  Basic Service Set (BSS) (a.k.a. “cell”) contains: m wireless hosts m access point (AP): base station  BSS’s combined to form distribution system (DS)

41 Lecture 3#41 Ad Hoc Networks  Ad hoc network: IEEE 802.11 stations can dynamically form network without AP  Applications: m “laptop” meeting in conference room, car m interconnection of “personal” devices m battlefield  IETF MANET (Mobile Ad hoc Networks) working group

42 Lecture 3#42 IEEE 802.11 MAC Protocol: CSMA/CA 802.11 CSMA: sender - if sense channel idle for DISF sec. then transmit entire frame (no collision detection) -if sense channel busy then binary backoff 802.11 CSMA receiver: if received OK return ACK after SIFS Why?

43 Lecture 3#43 IEEE 802.11 MAC Protocol 802.11 CSMA Protocol: others  NAV: Network Allocation Vector  802.11 frame has transmission time field  others (hearing data) defer access for NAV time units

44 Lecture 3#44 Hidden Terminal effect  hidden terminals: A, C cannot hear each other m obstacles, signal attenuation m collisions at B  goal: avoid collisions at B  CSMA/CA: CSMA with Collision Avoidance

45 Lecture 3#45 Collision Avoidance: RTS-CTS exchange  CSMA/CA: explicit channel reservation m sender: send short RTS: request to send m receiver: reply with short CTS: clear to send  CTS reserves channel for sender, notifying (possibly hidden) stations  avoid hidden station collisions

46 Lecture 3#46 Collision Avoidance: RTS-CTS exchange  RTS and CTS short: m collisions less likely, of shorter duration m end result similar to collision detection  IEEE 802.11 allows: m CSMA m CSMA/CA: reservations m polling from AP

47 Lecture 3#47 Point to Point Data Link Control  one sender, one receiver, one link: easier than broadcast link: m no Media Access Control m no need for explicit MAC addressing m e.g., dialup link, ISDN line  popular point-to-point DLC protocols: m PPP (point-to-point protocol) m HDLC: High level data link control (Data link used to be considered “high layer” in protocol stack!)

48 Lecture 3#48 PPP Design Requirements [RFC 1557]  packet framing: encapsulation of network-layer datagram in data link frame m carry network layer data of any network layer protocol (not just IP) at same time m ability to demultiplex upwards  bit transparency: must carry any bit pattern in the data field  error detection (no correction)  connection livenes: detect, signal link failure to network layer  network layer address negotiation: endpoint can learn/configure each other’s network address

49 Lecture 3#49 PPP non-requirements  no error correction/recovery  no flow control  out of order delivery OK  no need to support multipoint links (e.g., polling) Error recovery, flow control, data re-ordering all relegated to higher layers!!!

50 Lecture 3#50 PPP Data Frame  Flag: delimiter (framing)  Address: does nothing (only one option)  Control: does nothing; in the future possible multiple control fields  Protocol: upper layer protocol to which frame delivered (eg, PPP-LCP, IP, IPCP, etc)

51 Lecture 3#51 PPP Data Frame  info: upper layer data being carried  check: cyclic redundancy check (CRC) for error detection

52 Lecture 3#52 Byte Stuffing  “data transparency” requirement: data field must be allowed to include flag pattern m Q: is received data or flag?  Sender: adds (“stuffs”) extra byte before each or data byte  Receiver: m Receive 01111101 discard the byte, Next byte is data m Receive 01111110: flag byte

53 Lecture 3#53 Byte Stuffing flag byte pattern in data to send flag byte pattern plus stuffed byte in transmitted data

54 Lecture 3#54 PPP Data Control Protocol Before exchanging network- layer data, data link peers must  configure PPP link (max. frame length, authentication)  learn/configure network layer information m for IP: carry IP Control Protocol (IPCP) msgs (protocol field: 8021) to configure/learn IP address

55 Lecture 3#55 Data Link: Summary  principles behind data link layer services: m error detection, correction m sharing a broadcast channel: multiple access m link layer addressing, ARP  various link layer technologies m Ethernet m hubs, bridges, switches m IEEE 802.11 LANs m PPP  Chapter 5 Kurose and Ross

56 Lecture 3#56 Configuration Messages: BPDU

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