Technology in Education: The Legal, Social and Ethical Issues
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1 Technology in Education: The Legal, Social and Ethical Issues Julie Lewis EDUC 318 May 20, 2010
2 Ethical Issues For Safety and Security Social networkingAcceptable Use PoliciesNetiquetteCyber BullyingStudent DataInternet Privacy
3 Social Networking “Social Networking” = MySpace, Facebook, etc. Concerns for parents and educators: narcissism, gossip, wasted time, “friending”, hurt feelings, ruined reputations, and even dangerous activities
4 What Can Teachers Do?Allowing students to utilize academic social networking websites teaches digital citizenship to studentsTeachers can develop social networking contracts for students, if the school or school district does not have one.
5 Acceptable Use Policies What constitutes acceptable use?Includes not giving out personal information, not participating in off-line meetings or activities, and privacy expectationsWhat should Acceptable Use Policies Include?Risks associated with computer communication; rules for efficient, ethical and legal computer/ network usage; safe/appropriate computer social behavior; use of available and unavailable servicescopyright
6 What Can Teachers Do?If your school or school district does not have an Acceptable Use Policy, then write your ownTeachers need to enforce Acceptable Use Policies
7 NetiquetteNetiquette is defined as “courtesy in information processing” or “etiquette on the Internet”Responding promptly to messagesNot using school systems for personal useNot sending flame mail
8 What Can Teachers Do?Teachers should model ethical online behavior for studentsConduct training sessions for students and hold classroom discussionsParticipate in role playing, games and simulations with students
9 Cyber BullyingCyber Bullying is “the act of sending or posting harmful or cruel text or images using the Internet or other communication devices”Children who are victims portray low self-esteem, depression, anxiety and angerSome students do not perceive cyber bullying as a form of bullying behavior
10 What Can Teachers Do?Promote cyber-ethics in the classroom as students do online researchAssign news articles related to cyber bullying incidents for student reading and class discussionHave students write in response journals as part of a classroom discussion
11 Student DataThe Children’s Internet Protection Act (CIPA) “mandates the development of an Internet safety plan that addresses the unauthorized disclosure, use and dissemination of personal identification information regarding minors”Parents are uncomfortable with the amount of personal info that is collected about their children.
12 What Can Teachers Do?Be knowledgeable of the laws and policies associated with student data confidentiality on the federal, state, and district levelTeachers should exercise caution when student information is transmitted via , which forms a permanent recordEducate their students regarding respecting the privacy of other students
13 Internet PrivacyPrivacy is defined as “the right to be left alone”. However, the technology and the infrastructure of the Internet do not give users that choice.Criminal predators use very creative techniques, including online observation, to find out about children.
14 What Can Teachers Do?Educate students about Internet privacy, especially the use and abuse of personal informationTeach students how to recognize, avoid and handle situations where their privacy will be compromised and their lives put in dangerCreate safe, monitored learning environments
15 Digital DivideGenderSocio-economicRaceResource EquityTeacher bias
16 GenderFemales and minorities that are not encouraged to use technology are more likely than others to perform poorlyInformation technology is often perceived as a male subject
17 What Can Teachers Do?Ensure that technology is taught in a manner that encourages and engages all studentsBe a proponent for equal opportunity and treatment, providing instruction and guidance that crosses gender barriersBe supportive, especially for female students, in their pursuits into the information technology field
18 Socio-EconomicMinority groups face multiple barriers to information technology use, including lack of role models, unconscious stereotyping, false perceptions of interest, and limited access to computers2001 Census Bureau Report revealed that computer usage among students, ages 6-17, is nearly equal across differences in income, race and ethnic groups
19 What Can Teachers Do?Challenge students with higher-level technology activitiesOffer additional assistance to those students that are not as familiar with technology and the use of the InternetIncorporate technology into their lesson plans
20 RaceComputer and Internet usage is higher among Whites than Blacks and Hispanics, and higher among Asians and American Indians than among HispanicsThe digital divide among racial lines may be closing, according to the National Center for Education Statistics
21 What Can Teachers Do?Provide equitable access to computers and the Internet to all studentsAdvocate for computers in their classrooms and the school, looking for grant opportunities, donations, etc.Allow additional time for students to utilize computers at school and incorporate technology into assignments.
22 African American Households Resource Equity2001 Census Bureau Report FindingsMany students only access the Internet at schoolWhite HouseholdsAfrican American Households57.7% Own a Computer39.5% Have Internet Access37% Own a Computer 20.5% Have Internet Access
23 What Can Teachers Do?Play a key role in providing equitable access to all student groups in learning computer skillsMake computers and the Internet accessible outside of normal school hoursModel technology use in the classroom
24 Teacher BiasMany teachers assume that girls are not interested in information technology
25 What Can Teachers Do?Teachers can be influential in shaping female students interest in technologyBe fair and equitable to all students when considering technology, regardless of gender, race or socio-economic statusBe supportive of all students with regard to technology
26 Legal Use of Digital Media CopyrightFair UseCreative Commons
27 CopyrightCopyright is “the legal right of authors to prohibit others from copying their work”
28 What Can Teachers Do?Set an example for their students and be a role model by following the laws themselvesEducate students on giving proper credit to the author/owner when using information prepared by them and also how to paraphraseEducate students on how to correctly cite an author’s work
29 Fair UseA “doctrine in copyright law that allows limited use of copyrighted material without requiring permission from the rights-holder. It provides for the legal incorporation of copyrighted material into another work under limited conditions”Incorporates four factors: the purpose of use, the nature of the work, the portion used, and the effect on the market
30 What Can Teachers Do?Create a Fair Use handout for students, including instructions on portion limitationsEducate students on the importance of giving credit for the materials used and how to correctly cite the sourceEducate students on following Fair Use guidelines when using quotations in their writings
31 Creative CommonsIs “a set of licensing tools that stands between the All Rights Reserved of traditional copyright and No Rights Reserved that is the public domain”Applies to text, blogs, music, audio, recordings, podcasts, photographs, videos, songs, websites, and films found on the Internet
32 What Can Teachers Do?Refer students to the Flickr Creative Commons search page (Use the search portal on Creative Commons ( for lesson plans freely shared by other educators
33 ResourcesBartrom, L.. (2009). Fair Use Guidelines. TechTrends, 53(5), 14-15. Retrieved May 20, 2010, from ProQuest Education Journals. (Document ID: ).Basken, P. (2010, February). Obama Tries New Tack in Collecting Student Data :Legal and privacy hurdles are higher than expected. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved May 20, 2010, from ProQuest Education Journals. (Document ID: ).Beers, K.. (2004). Equality and the Digital Divide. Voices From the Middle, 11(3), 4-5. Retrieved May 20, 2010, from ProQuest Education Journals. (Document ID: ).Callison, D. (2004, February). Digital Divide. School Library Media Activities Monthly, 20(6), 37-40,51. Retrieved May 20, 2010, from ProQuest Education Journals. (Document ID: ).Computer Graphic Image. Retrieved from:
34 Resources Cyberbullying image. Retrieved from: Davidson, H. (1999, September). The educators' lean and mean no fat guide to fair use. Technology & Learning, 20(2), 58-64. Retrieved May 20, 2010, from ProQuest Education Journals. (Document ID: ).Dawley, L. (2007). Learning to Use Multiple Tools. (2007). In L. Dawley The Tools for SuccessfulOnline Teaching, (pp ) Hershey, PA: Information Science Publishing Retrieved May 18, , from Gale Virtual Reference Library via Gale:Draa, V., & Sydney, T.. (2009). Cyberbullying: Challenges and Actions. Journal of Family andConsumerSciences, 101(4), 40-46. Retrieved May 13, 2010, from ProQuest Education Journals. (Document ID: ) Fryer, Wesley. (n. d.). TOOLS FOR THE TEKS: Integrating Technology In The Classroom. CreativeCommons in K-12 Education. Retrieved from:Judge’s gavel graphic image. Retrieved from:Gordon-Murnane, L.. (2010, January). CREATIVE COMMONS: Copyright Tools for the 21st Century. Online, 34(1), 18-21. Retrieved May 20, 2010, from ProQuest Education Journals. (Document ID: ).
35 ResourcesHargadon, S.. (2010, March). Educational Networking. MultiMedia &12, Retrieved May 20, 2010, from ProQuest Education Journals. (DocumentID: ).Hayes, S.. (2008). Acceptable Use 2.0. Voices From the Middle, 15(3), 44-46. Retrieved May 18, 2010, from ProQuest Education Journals. (Document ID: ).Internet privacy? (2001). School Libraries in Canada: A Teachers' Guide, 20(4), 20-22. Retrieved May 20, 2010, from ProQuest Education Journals. (Document ID: ).INTERNET SAFETY: Acceptable Use Policies. (2008, January). Principal Leadership, 8(5), 10. Retrieved May 18, 2010, from ProQuest Education Journals. (Document ID: ).
36 ResourcesInternet: Internet Filters in Schools and Libraries. (2003). In S. Phelps (Ed.) Gale Encyclopedia of Everyday Law, (Vol. 2). (pp ) Detroit: Gale Retrieved May 13, 2010, from Gale Virtual Reference Library via Gale: Lock and Key Image. Retrieved from:Multi-Cultural student image. Retrieved from:Netiquette graphic image. Retrieved from: Nicholson, K., Hancock, D., & Dahlberg, T. (2007). Preparing Teachers and Counselors to Help Under-Represented Populations Embrace the Information Technology Field. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 15(1), Retrieved May 13, 2010, from ProQuest Education Journals. (Document ID: ).
37 Resources Schoolhouse graphic image. Retrieved from: art _std.jpegSchoolhouse/schoolbus graphic image. Retrieved from:Sharkey, Paulette Bochnig. (1992). What to Tell Your Students About Copyright. The Clearing House, 65(4), 213. Retrieved May 18, 2010, from ProQuest Education Journals. (Document ID: ).Shastry, Nan. (2010). [School House Power Point Template]. Retrieved from:Smith, S. (2005). THE DIGITAL DIVIDE: GENDER AND RACIAL DIFFERENCES IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION. Information Technology, Learning, and Performance Journal, 23(1), 13-23. Retrieved May 13, 2010, from ProQuest Education Journals. (Document ID: ).
38 ResourcesSocial Networking Image. Retrieved from:Stahl, B. (1998, November). Quick! May I go to the Internet?. Book Report, p. 20. Retrieved from Academic SearchPremierdatabase.Student graphic image. Retrieved from:Talking the talk. (1996). Techniques: Making Education & Career Connections, 71(8), 16. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database.ab039c044f9f09e9%40sessionmgr112&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=aph&AN=Taranto, G., & Abbondanza, M.. (2009, December). Powering Students Up. Principal Leadership, 10(4), 38-42. Retrieved May 20, 2010, from ProQuest Education Journals. (Document ID: ).
39 Resources Teacher graphic image. Retrieved from: Valadez, J., & Duran, R. (2007). Redefining the Digital Divide: Beyond Access to Computers and the Internet. High School Journal, 90(3), Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database.Vincent, A. & Meche, M. (2001). Ethics in Information Processing. In B. S. Kaliski (Ed.)Encyclopedia of Business and Finance, (Vol. 1). (pp ) New York: Macmillan Reference USA Retrieved May 13, 2010, from Gale Virtual Reference Library via Gale:What is Cyberbullying. (n. d.). Retrieved from:Willards, N. (2002). Ensuring Student Privacy on the Internet. Retrieved from the Education World website: