Www.mariamwiki.wikispaces.com Types of Computers and Computer Systems.
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www.mariamwiki.wikispaces.com Types of Computers and Computer Systems
Objectives You will be able to: –Define what is a computer –Differentiate between the different types of computers –Explain the concept of Computer Systems –Demonstrate the concepts of: architecture, specification, data, and processing –Define the concept of motherboard and mention the main components of it (CPU, cards) –Differentiate between input and output functions and devices.
What is a Computers? A computer: is an electronic device that: –Accepts information and instructions from users –Manipulates the information according to the instructions –Displays the information in some way –And Stores the information for retrieval later. Computers are classified by: size, speed and capabilities
Types of Computers? 1.Personal Computers 2.Hand-held Computers 3.Mainframe Computers 4.Supercomputers Note: Xbox and PlayStation are also computers
Personal Computers: Personal Computers: used by a single user for use in home or office. They are used for general computing tasks such as: –Word processing –Manipulating numbers –Working with photographs or graphics –Exchanging email and accessing the Net
Personal Computers Examples: Desktop computer (designed to set compactly on a desk): –Notebook (laptop): small and lightweight and designed for portability –Tablet PC: designed for compatibility and includes the capability of recognizing ordinary handwriting on the screen Notebook is more expensive than Desktop, and Tablet PC is more expensive than notebook computers
Handheld Computers Handheld Computers: are small computers that fit in the palm of your hand with more limited capabilities than personal computers: –PDA (Personal Digital Assistants): are used to maintain an electronic appointment book, address book, calculator, and notepad High-end PDA: All-in-one devices that can send and receive emails and make phone calls (e.g. iPhone) –MP3 players: are used to store and play music (some models can play digital movies and television shows) –Cell Phone: are used to make phone calls, store contact information, take and store digital photos, play video, store music. Built-in calculator. High-end cell phones can perform many of the same functions as PDA
Mainframe Computers Mainframe Computers: are used by larger business and government agencies to provide centralized storage, processing, and management of large amounts of data Its price varies from several hundred thousand dollars to several million dollars
Supercomputers Supercomputers: are the fastest and largest computers used by large corporations and government agencies when the tremendous volume of data would seriously delay processing on a mainframe computer. It could cost tens of millions dollars
Understanding Terminals When using mainframes or supercomputers each user inputs processing request and views output through a terminal or terminal emulator. Terminal: has a keyboard for input and a monitor for output, but process little or no data on its own. Terminal Emulator: a personal computer, workstation, or server that uses special software to imitate a terminal so that the PC can communicate with the mainframe or supercomputer for complex data processing.
Computer System Computer System: includes computer Hardware and Software Hardware: the physical components of a computer Software: the intangible components of a computer system; the programs or the list of instructions that the computer needs to perform a specific task
Architecture and Specifications Architecture - Configuration: the design and construction of a computer Specification: the technical details about each hardware component Eg: a computer system might be configured to include a printer; the specification of the printer might be a print speed (8pages/1min), or the capacity to print in color
Data and Processing The hardware and software of a computer system work together to process data Data: the words, numbers, figures, sounds, graphics that describe people, events, things, and ideas Processing: modifying the data Processing tasks occur on the motherboard which is located inside the computer and is the main electronic component of the computer
Motherboard Motherboard: a circuit board which is a rigid piece of insulating material with circuits, electrical paths, on it that control specific functions
Motherboard Processing Hardware Microprocessor or the Central Processing Unit (CPU): Consists of transistors and electronic circuits on a silicon chip (an integrated circuit embedded in semiconductor material) Mounted on the motherboard and is responsible for executing instructions to process information
Motherboard Processing Hardware Cards: are removable circuit boards that are inserted into slots in the motherboard to expand the capabilities of the motherboard Eg: Sound card translates the digital audio information from the computer into analog sounds that the human ear can hear
Input and Output Input: data or instructions you type into the computer Output: the result of the computer processing input Peripheral Devices: components are needed to accomplish input, output, and storage functions
Input Devices Keyboard and mouse are input devices that are used to enter data and issue commands Commands: are input instructions that tell the computer how to process data (e.g. ms words commands)
Output Devices Output can be in many different forms: –R–Reports –D–Documents –G–Graphs –S–Sounds –P–Pictures The output forms are produced by output device e.g. monitor and printer The output created can be stored either inside the computer or in external storage device (e.g DVD)
Comparing CPU Speeds How fast a computer can process instructions depends partially on the speed of the microprocessor, which is determined by its: –C–Clock Speed –W–Word Size –C–Cache Size –W–Whether it is single or dual core
Comparing CPU Speeds Clock Speed: is measured in megahertz (MHz), millions of cycles per second, or in gigahertz (GHz), billions of cycles per second Word Size: the amount of data the is processed at one time Dual-Core processor: has two processors on a single chip, can process information up to twice as fast as single-core processor (one with one processor on the chip)