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Future neutrino experiments

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1 Future neutrino experiments
The road-map… and a few itineraries Three family oscillations The Japanese way: JPARC  SK, HK The alpine way: CERN-SPL … and beta-beam and Fréjus Neutrino Factory Superbeam Neutrino Factory and beta-beam R&D EMCOG statements design studies Conclusions

2 Roadmap You are here Where do we stand? Where do we go? Which way do
we chose? Shortest? Cheapest? Fastest? Taking into account practicalities or politics? You want to go there

3 leptonic CP & T violations
Where are we? We know that there are three families of active, light neutrinos (LEP) Solar neutrino oscillations are established (Homestake+Gallium+Kam+SK+SNO+KamLAND) Atmospheric (nm -> ) oscillations are established (IMB+Kam+SK+Macro+Sudan+K2K) At that frequency, electron neutrino oscillations are small (CHOOZ) This allows a consistent picture with 3-family oscillations q12 ~ Dm122~7 10-5eV q23 ~ Dm23 2~ eV q13 <~ 100 with several unknown parameters q13, d, mass hierarchy leptonic CP & T violations => an exciting experimental program for at least 25 years *) Where do we go? *)to set the scale: CP violation in quarks was discovered in 1964 and there is still an important program (K0pi0, B-factories, Neutron EDM, LHCb, BTeV….) to go on for >>10 years…i.e. a total of >50 yrs. and we have not discovered leptonic CP yet! 5. LSND ? ( miniBooNe) This result is not consistent with three families of neutrinos oscillating, and is not supported (nor is it completely contradicted) by other experiments. If confirmed, this would be even more exciting See Barger et al PRD

4 The neutrino mixing matrix: 3 angles and a phase d
Dm223= eV2 n2 n1 Dm212= eV2 OR? n2 n1 Dm212= eV2 Dm223= eV2 n3 q23 (atmospheric) = 450 , q12 (solar) = 300 , q13 (Chooz) < 130 Unknown or poorly known even after approved program: 13 , phase  , sign of Dm13 2

5 Consequences of 3 Family oscillation :
Oscillation maximum Dm2 L / E =p/2 Atmospheric Dm 2= eV Latm = GeV Solar Dm2 = eV Lsol = 1 GeV Consequences of 3 Family oscillation : I There will be nm ↔ ne and nt ↔ ne oscillation at L atm P (nm ↔ ne )max =~ ½ sin 22 q … (small) II There will be CP or T violation CP: P (nm ↔ ne) ≠ P (nm ↔ ne) T : P (nm ↔ ne) ≠ P (ne ↔ nm) III we do not know if the neutrino n1 which contains more ne is the lightest one (natural?) or not.

6 P(nenm) = ¦A¦2+¦S¦2 + 2 A S sin d P(nenm) = ¦A¦2+¦S¦2 - 2 A S sin d
P(nenm) - P(nenm) sind sin (Dm212 L/4E) sin q12 = ACP a P(nenm) + P(nenm) sinq13 + solar term… … need large values of sin q12, Dm212 (LMA) but *not* large sin2q13 … need APPEARANCE … P(nene) is time reversal symmetric (reactors or sun are out) … can be large (30%) for suppressed channel (one small angle vs two large) at wavelength at which ‘solar’ = ‘atmospheric’ and for ne , t … asymmetry is opposite for ne and net

7 (neutrino fact., beta beam
! asymmetry is a few % and requires excellent flux normalization (neutrino fact., beta beam or off axis beam with not-too-near near detector) T asymmetry for sin  = 1 neutrino factory JHFII-HK JHFI-SK NOTE: This is at first maximum! Sensitivity at low values of q13 is better for short baselines, sensitivity at large values of q13 may be better for longer baselines (2d max or 3d max.) This would desserve a more careful analysis! 0.10 0.30 10 30 90

8 m+  e+ ne nm and m-  e- ne nm
Road Map Experiments to find q13 : 1. search for nmne in conventional nm beam (MINOS, ICARUS/OPERA) limitations: NC p0 background, intrinsic ne component in beam 2. Off-axis beam (JHF-SK, off axis NUMI, off axis CNGS) or 3. Low Energy Superbeam (BNL  Homestake, SPL Fréjus) Precision experiments to find CP violation -- or to search further if q13 is too small 1. beta-beam He++  6Li+++ ne e- and 18Ne 10+  18F 9+ ne e+ 2. Neutrino factory with muon storage ring fraction thereof will exist . m+  e+ ne nm and m-  e- ne nm

9 Where will this get us… X 5
0.10 10 2.50 50 130 Mezzetto comparison of reach in the oscillations; right to left: present limit from the CHOOZ experiment, expected sensitivity from the MINOS experiment, CNGS (OPERA+ICARUS) 0.75 MW JHF to super Kamiokande with an off-axis narrow-band beam, Superbeam: 4 MW CERN-SPL to a 400 kton water Cerenkov in Fréjus (J-PARC phase II similar) from a Neutrino Factory with 40 kton large magnetic detector.

10 T2K (JPARC  Super-Kamiokande)
295 km baseline J-PARC approved neutrino beam under discussion but set as first priority by international committee Proposal to be submitted early 2004 Super-Kamiokande: 22.5 kton fiducial Excellent e/ ID Additional 0/e ID (for En~ 500 MeV- 1 GeV) Matter effects small need near detector! European collaboration forming (mailing list: UK(5)-Italy(5)-Saclay-Gva-ETHZ- Spain(2)) This experiment is at the right ratio of Energy to distance Lmax = 300 km at 0.6 GeV

11 The (J-PARC-n) T2K Beamline
2 km 295 km Neutrino spectra at diff. dist 1.5km Problem with water Cerenkov: not very sensitive to details of interactions. Either 280 m or 2 km would be good locations for a very fine grained neutrino detector Planned: a scintillating fiber/water calorimeter. Liquid argon TPC would be a very good (better) candidate! Event numbers: near/SK = m(near[tons]) / (300/2)2 = m(near[tons]) => Need tons fiducial or so 295km 280m

12 Schematic drawing of Hyper-Kamiokande
Super-K 40m 1 Mton (fiducial) volume: Total Length 400m (8 Compartments) Other major goal: improve proton decay reach Supernovae until Andromedes, etc… Excavation will not start until 2011

13 This will be the case in 2011+8+8.3 = 2027.3

14 Motivations to go beyond this…
Intrinsic limits of conventional neutrino beams (intensity, purity, only nm , low energy ) Go back to Europe and try to establish a CERN-based program on the long run The common source: SPL SPL physics workshop: May 2004  CERN SPSC Cogne meeting sept.2004 Superbeam/neutrino Factory design study Neutrino factory The ultimate tool for neutrino oscillations SPL HIPPI Superbeam EURISOL design study APEC design study Beta beam Very large underground lab Water Cerenkov, Liq.Arg EURISOL

15 Fréjus underground lab.
Possible step 0: Neutrino SUPERBEAM 300 MeV n m Neutrinos small contamination from ne (no K at 2 GeV!) Fréjus underground lab. A large underground water Cerenkov (400 kton) UNO/HyperK or/and a large L.Arg detector. also : proton decay search, supernovae events solar and atmospheric neutrinos. Performance similar to J-PARC II There is a window of opportunity for digging the cavern stating in 2008 (safety tunnel in Frejus)

16 CERN 40kt Italy 400kt Europe: SPLFrejus Geneve 130km SPL @ CERN
2.2GeV, 50Hz, 2.3x1014p/pulse 4MW Now under R&D phase 130km 40kt 400kt Italy

17 CERN: b-beam baseline scenario
Nuclear Physics SPL Decay ring Brho = 1500 Tm B = 5 T Lss = 2500 m SPS Decay Ring ISOL target & Ion source ECR Cyclotrons, linac or FFAG Foer politiska skael har jag laatit bli att skriva EURISOL och valt att skriva Nuclear Physics istaellet. Energin foer jonerna aer laangt ifraan helt fast-staelld. Gamma=150 foer Helium aer inte ett “magiskt” tal men det aer mest kraevande utifraan accelerator synpunkt saa daerfoer har jag koncentrerat mig paa detta I fortsaettningen. Rapid cycling synchrotron PS

18 Tunnels and Magnets Civil engineering costs: Estimate of 400 MCHF for 1.3% incline (13.9 mrad) Ringlenth: 6850 m, Radius=300 m, Straight sections=2500 m Magnet cost: First estimate at 100 MCHF Med stoersta sannolikhet koster tunneln enbart 200 MCHF (inga stora kammrar foer detektorer och liten lutning) men vi behoever nog perngarna foer en PS ring istaellet. FLUKA simulated losses in surrounding rock (no public health implications)

19 (400kton Water Cherenkov)
Detectors Liquid Ar TPC (~100kton) UNO (400kton Water Cherenkov)

20 e  m (+) (T) m  e (p+) (CP) e  m (-) (T) m  e (p-)
Combination of beta beam with low energy super beam Unique to CERN: need few 100 GeV accelerator (PS + SPS will do!) experience in radioactive beams at ISOLDE many unknowns: what is the duty factor that can be achieved? (needs < 10-3 ) combines CP and T violation tests e  m (+) (T) m  e (p+) (CP) e  m (-) (T) m  e (p-) Can this work???? theoretical studies now on beta beam + SPL target and horn R&D  design study together with EURISOL

21 DUTY FACTOR (this is an issue for low energy superbeam and beta beam)
Sub-GeV Atmospheric Neutrino interactions are at rate ~100/kt/year. ~ 50% ne and 50% nm For a 500 kton detector this will give events of the wrong lepton At this energy the directionality if poor (cuts will not be effective) It is necesary to discriminate with timing! Duty factor required < 10-3 SPL (50 Hz), needs 20 microseconds every 20 ms. (accumulator) Betabeam : needs stacking of ions along the perimeter of the SR. (2 bunches of 10ns / 7km) (more bunches of same intensity OK)

22 L. Mosca

23 -- Neutrino Factory -- CERN layout
1016p/s m/s = m/yr m/yr _ m+  e+ ne nm ne/yr nm/yr oscillates ne  nm interacts giving m- WRONG SIGN MUON interacts giving m+

24 Where do you prefer to take shifts?

25 Neutrino fluxes m+ -> e+ ne nm
nm/n e ratio reversed by switching m+/ m- ne nm spectra are different No high energy tail. Very well known flux (10-3) -- E&sE calibration from muon spin precession -- angular divergence: small effect if q < 0.2/g, - - absolute flux measured from muon current or by nm e- -> m- ne in near expt. -- in triangle ring, muon polarization precesses and averages out (preferred, -> calib of energy, energy spread) Similar comments apply to beta beam, except spin 0  Energy and energy spread have to be obtained from the properties of the storage ring (Trajectories, RF volts and frequency, etc…) m polarization controls ne flux: m+ -X> ne in forward direction

26 Detector Iron calorimeter Magnetized R = 10 m, L = 20 m
Charge discrimination B = 1 T R = 10 m, L = 20 m Fiducial mass = 40 kT Also: L Arg detector: magnetized ICARUS Wrong sign muons, electrons, taus and NC evts *-> Events for 1 year Baseline nm CC ne CC nm signal (sin2 q13=0.01) 732 Km 3.5 x 107 5.9 x 107 1.1 x 105 (J-PARC I SK = 40) 3500 Km 1.2 x 106 2.4 x 106 1.0 x 105

27 6 classes of events right sign muon nm -> nm -> m+ electron/positron nm -> ne -> e+ or ne -> ne -> e- wrong sign muon ne -> nm -> m- right sign tau nm -> nt -> t+-> m+ nn wrong sign tau ne -> nt -> t--> m- nn no lepton NC & other taus

28 ICARUS NB: additional potential wrt magnetized iron calorimeter:
tau detection, sign of *low* energy electrons, if magnetized. May redefine the optimal parameters of neutrino factory

29 compare ne to ne probabilities
CP asymmetries compare ne to ne probabilities m is prop matter density, positive for neutrinos, negative for antineutrinos HUGE effect for distance around 6000 km!! Resonance around 12 GeV when = 0

30 CP violation (ctd) 40 kton L M D 50 GeV nufact 5 yrs 1021m /yr
Matter effect must be subtracted. One believes this can be done with uncertainty Of order 2%. Also spectrum of matter effect and CP violation is different It is important to subtract in bins of measured energy. knowledge of spectrum is essential here! 5-10 GeV 10-20 GeV 20-30 GeV 30-40 GeV 40-50 GeV 40 kton L M D 50 GeV nufact 5 yrs 1021m /yr In fact, GeV Is enough! Best distance is km e.g. Fermilab or BNL -> west coast or …

31 Silver channel at neutrino factory
A. Donini et al High energy neutrinos at NuFact allow observation of net (wrong sign muons with missing energy and P). UNIQUE Liquid Argon or OPERA-like detector at 3000 km. Since the sind dependence has opposite sign with the wrong sign muons, this solves ambiguities that will invariably appear if only wrong sign muons are used. ambiguities with only wrong sign muons (3500 km) associating taus to muons (no efficencies, but only OPERA mass) studies on-going equal event number curves muon vs taus

32 NUFACT Superbeam only Beta-beam only Betabeam + superbeam Upgrade
Area of phase space in which CP violation can be seen (Mezzetto) NUFACT Superbeam only Beta-beam only Betabeam + superbeam Upgrade 400kton-> 1 Mton

33 NUFACT Superbeam only Beta-beam only Betabeam + superbeam Upgrade 400kton-> 1 Mton

34 NUFACT Superbeam only Beta-beam only Betabeam + superbeam Upgrade
400kton-> 1 Mton J-PARC HK 540 kton?

35 The proposed Roadmap M. Vretenar Consistently with the recent DG talk on the future of CERN, is in preparation a document (“Future Projects and Associated R&D”) to be presented at the December Council. The chapter “Upgrade of the Proton Injector Complex” presents a roadmap, consistent with 2 basic assumptions: construction of Linac4 2007/10 (before end of LHC payment) construction of SPL in 2008/15 (after end of LHC payments) Linac 4 approval SPL approval LHC upgrade

36 L. Mosca This fits very well!

37 Beta beam Some Critical issues Megaton detector
Super beam & Neutrino Factory SPL cost, cleanliness, power limits capability to handle different time structures Accumulation of protons Target and target station Collection (Horn at high radiation and high rep rate) Design/optimization of multihorn system and decay tunel Muon Cooling of large emittance muon beam (MICE + kickers) Fast and cheap accceleration (RF source, FFAG, kickers) Megaton detector What size cavity can be dug? cost/time scale Photosensitive devices!!! Other detector (Larg, other) safety…. Beta beam Ion yields Activation Stacking Do we need a new PS?

38 Motivations to go beyond this…
Intrinsic limits of conventional neutrino beams (intensity, purity, only nm , low energy ) Go back to Europe and try to establish a CERN-based program on the long run The common source: SPL SPL physics workshop: May 2004  CERN SPC Cogne meeting sept.2004 Superbeam/neutrino Factory design study Neutrino factory The ultimate tool for neutrino oscillations SPL HIPPI Superbeam EURISOL design study APEC design study Beta beam Very large underground lab Water Cerenkov, L.Arg EURISOL

39 EMCOG (European Muon Concertation and Oversight Group)
FIRST SET OF BASIC GOALS The long-term goal is to have a Conceptual Design Report for a European Neutrino Factory Complex by the time of JHF & LHC start-up, so that, by that date, this would be a valid option for the future of CERN. An earlier construction for the proton driver (SPL + accumulator & compressor rings) is conceivable and, of course, highly desirable. The SPL and targetry and horn R&D have therefore to be given the highest priority. Cooling is on the critical path for the neutrino factory itself; there is a consensus that a cooling experiment is a necessity. The emphasis should be the definition of practical experimental projects with a duration of 2-5 years. Such projects can be seen in the following four areas:

40 Superbeam & Beta Beam cost estimates

41 Neutrino Factory studies and R&D
USA, Europe, Japan have each their scheme. Only one has been costed, US study II: + detector: MINOS * 10 = about 300 M€ or M$ Neutrino Factory CAN be done…..but it is too expensive as is. Aim: ascertain challenges can be met + cut cost in half.

42 Muon Ionization Cooling Never done!
High intensity proton driver. Activities on the front end are ongoing in many laboratories in Europe, in particular at CERN, CEA, IN2P3, INFN and GSI. Progressive installation of a high intensity injector and of a linear accelerator up to 120 MeV at CERN (R. Garoby et al) would have immediate rewards in the increase of intensity for the CERN fixed target program and for LHC operation. This (HIPPI) has received funding from EU! 2. Target studies problem at 4 MW!! This experimental program is underway with liquid metal jet studies. Goal: explore synergies among the following parties involved: CERN, Lausanne, Megapie at PSI, EURISOL, etc… Experiment at CERN under consideration by the collaboration. (H. Kirk et al) 3. Horn studies. Problem at 50 Hz and 4 MW A first horn prototype has been built and pulsed at low intensity. Mechanical properties measured (S. Gilardoni’s thesis, GVA) 5 year program to reach high intensity, high rep rate pulsing, and study the radiation resistance of horns. Optimisation of horn shape. IN2P3 Orsay has become leading house for this. Collaborations to be sought with Saclay, PSI (for material research and fatigue under high stress in radiation environment) Muon Ionization Cooling Never done! A collaboration towards and International cooling experiment MICE has been established with the muon collaboration in United States and Japanese groups. There is a large interest from European groups in this experiment. Following the submission of a letter of Intent to PSI and RAL, the collaboration has prepared a full proposal at RAL. Proposal has been strongly encouraged and large UK funding secured (10M£). PSI offers a solenoid for the muon beam line CERN, which as already made large initial contributions in the concept of the experiment, has earmarked some very precious hardware that could be recuperated. (RF! Cryo?) More collaboration needed from European institutes outside UK.

43 NUFACT R&D: Target station
Speed of Hg disruption Max v  20 m/s measured v//  3 m/s jet remains intact for more than 20 microseconds. 1 cm Protons liquid jet of mercury

44 US scheme: jet is inside a very high field tapered solenoid (20 T max)
this was tested at the Laboratoire de Champs Intenses (Grenoble) A. Fabich et al– CERN-BNL-Grenoble

45 Magnetic horn Current of 300 kA p To decay channel Protons B = 0 Hg Target B1/R

46 Horn design – not a finished issue
Lateral reflector …. To do better : can one place a reflector on the axis – exposed to the 4 MW proton beam power? Question: what is the best proton energy? (can go up to 4 or 5 GeV protons with SPL ++) Probably would like to match the beta-beam energy (600 MeV) Contact S. Gilardoni (UniGe)  J.E. Campagne LAL Orsay

47 Liquid Hydrogen absorbers 1,2,3 measurement of emittance in and out
10% cooling of 200 MeV/c muons requires ~ 20 MV of RF single particle measurements => measurement precision can be as good as D ( e out/e in ) = 10-3 never done before either…. Coupling Coils 1&2 Spectrometer solenoid 1 Matching coils 1&2 Matching coils 1&2 Spectrometer solenoid 2 Focus coils 1 Focus coils 2 Focus coils 3 m Beam PID TOF 0 Cherenkov TOF 1 RF cavities 1 RF cavities 2 Downstream particle ID: TOF 2 Cherenkov Calorimeter Diffusers 1&2 Liquid Hydrogen absorbers 1,2,3 Incoming muon beam Experiment is now APPROVED At RAL. Trackers 1 & 2 measurement of emittance in and out

48 COOLING RINGS Two goals: 1) Reduce hardware expense on cooling channel
2) Combine with energy spread reduction (longitudinal and transverse cooling) major problem: Kickers (Same problem occurs in Japanese acceleration scheme with FFAG)

49 Yoshi Mori NB: a standard cyclotron would be MUCH smaller and inexpensive but would have much smaller acceptance and could not be scaled up to higher energies.

50 SPL Physics workshop 24-25 May 2004
EMCOG recommended a study of SPL physics opportunities in the framework of the ECFA working groups and BENE (neutrinos + low energy muons + Eurisol + …) SuperBeam/neutrino Factory design study EMCOG fully endorses the proposal and calls for proposals for the R&D experiments. It is stressed that support from the home countries and laboratories is essential to complete the EU funding. Beta-beam design study EMCOG finds this possibility very promising and deserving a thorough study in the best conditions. The subject is very specific and pertinent to a particular site and would justify a separate design study. This has been accepted as a EURISOL work package. EU call for proposal 11 November 2003 Dead line for submission 4 March 2004 Full presentation to community: muon week February 2004

51 Design studies FP6 foresees funding for design studies of new infrastructures. Encouraged by EU in reference with the (approved) CARE. In preparation (  4 March 2004) is the proposal for a European based Design study of a Superbeam and Neutrino Factory RAL as leading house. (Peach/Edgecock) Proton driver CERN in coll. with RAL, etc., Target  many interested. Still searching a leading house. (PSI not interested?) TTA at CERN under consideration. (pulsed beam important) Horn and collectors LAL orsay Cooling; MICE Acceleration, FFAG Saclay, Grenoble Design Europe alone does not have critical mass for all this. => world collaboration with USA and Japan was launched at NUFACT03 in June 2003.

52 Conclusions Neutrino Physics is alive an attractive.
We have an exciting program for many years.  discovery and studies of leptonic CP violation This addresses very fundamental questions (GUTS, matter asymmetry, masses) from a completely different viewpoint than the energy frontier. 1. We should not miss the opportunity to make a coherent contribution to JPARC-n! 2. We must however make sure that there is a competitive long term program in Europe SPL is a good start and we must support it very strongly. Without target, horns etc… it would be however useless for neutrino physics there is a strong physics program with a neutrino superbeam (2015 seems a goal date) and at a later stage beta-beam SPL makes full sense for particle physics as a driver for a neutrino factory There are several severe questions to solve before either can be proposed. design studies with the aim of Conceptual Design Report at LHC/J-Parc start-up

53 We see now positive signals:
Conclusions II After an exciting start in 1998/1999 (NUFACT99 and NFWG…) we had two difficult years in We see now positive signals: -- approval of HIPPI and BENE inside CARE -- SPL seems well on the way -- strong supprt of Dapnia+IN2P3 – INFN for Fréjus Laboratory -- Support and scientific approval of MICE at RAL Next big mountain is success in the Design Study Proposals and of the SPL workshop! good luck to us!


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