2003-09-Yan Outline n Sustainable Development & Sustainable energy systems n Energy Utilization in the world and Sweden and policy issues n Challenges: Examples: from Climate change (Global system) to Humid Air Turbine (Technical components) n Example: Our solutions to global climate change -- Responsive Carbon Management n Advanced sustainable energy technologies
2003-09-Yan Challenge ! A picture from a kid Nature and Human Society
2003-09-Yan When are you going to pay now or future ?
2003-09-Yan Sustainbility and sustaiable development Sustainability: Refers to whether a process can be continued indefinitely without depleting the energy or material resources on which it depends. Sustainability: Refers to whether a process can be continued indefinitely without depleting the energy or material resources on which it depends. sustainable development: Development that provides people with a better life without sacrificing or depleting resources or causing environmental impacts that will undercut future generations. sustainable development: Development that provides people with a better life without sacrificing or depleting resources or causing environmental impacts that will undercut future generations. sustainable society. A society that functions in a way so as not to deplete energy or material resources on which it depends. sustainable society. A society that functions in a way so as not to deplete energy or material resources on which it depends.
2003-09-Yan Three dimensions of sustainable development development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs The economy growth growth financial stability The environment The social welfare employment social and culture Energy
2003-09-Yan Challenges to sustainable development n Global energy consumption: developing countries, e.g., nearly 2 billion people lack access to electricity. could be 5 billion in 2050. n Local and regional pollution from fossil fuels (developing countries) + climate change (developed countries) n Security of energy supply n Reform and privatisation of energy market: power energy policy-making is changing fast. Just as market, more and more issues require regional or global co- ordination. n Improvements in energy efficiency and reductions in the cost of renewable energy sources
2003-09-Yan Energy Energy plays an important role for all above sustainable developments. We need a sustainable energy system n Sustainable Energy Systems: –improving energy efficiency –switching to environmentally less harmful fuels, such as renewable energies –the global equilibrium of energy production and consumption
2003-09-Yan From Source to Service Sources Fossil fuels n coal n oil n natural gas Renewables n Solar n Biomass n Hydro n Nuclear Services n light n warm/cool n transportation n …... Energy Technologies Energy Technologies Energy Technologies are supplying the services
2003-09-Yan An example of energy chain from extraction to energy service
What happens in Nature when energy provides services ? A “heat engine model” n What have we paid for the services? n Have we ever paid? n Forgot the nature? Nature (Source) Nature (Sink) Society service/ energy resources wastes Nature (Sink)
Reason 1 - increase emissions: energy production, industrial processes and transport. The industrialised countries consequently must bear the main responsibility of reducing emissions of carbon dioxide.
2003-09-Yan Reason 2: decrease carbon sink cutting down forest uisng for or built-up areas, urbanisation, roads etc
2003-09-Yan ？？ How to manage carbon ？？ to reach the target Options focused on fossil fuels: Options focused on fossil fuels: - reduce emissions - capture emissions
2003-09-Yan A New Concept: n The state of art: based on the fossil fuels. --> –it is possible to reduce emissions –but impossible to avoid emissions = reduce increasing emissions n New idea: renewable (bioenergy) + removal technology n New technical solution: Biomass (= CO2 neutral) + capture CO2 ==>> Negative CO2 emission n Managing Climate Risk
2003-09-Yan Advantages of Managing Climate Risk n Increase the carbon sink by increase use of biomass to substitute fossil fuels n Cost Effective CO 2 Capture Results in Science Oct 26 2001
2003-09-Yan Bioenergy + CO 2 Removal energy products biofuels ashes (minerals) carbon dioxide CO 2 CO2 removal
2003-09-Yan Comparison between fossil fuel based and biomass based CO 2 capture systems
2003-09-Yan Example of Technology Innovation Humid Air Turbine (HAT Cycle) n Parallel combination of steam and gas turbine n Features –High efficiency, low cost, low NOx n Joint working teams with both industries and universities –Pre-study: 1992—1993 –Program ： 1993 ： ABB （ Alstom), VOLVO, VATENFALL, SYDKRAFT ， EL-FORSK, EL-KRAFT, KTH, LTH –1998, first pilot plant
2003-09-Yan Innovation of Energy Systems Integration of energy systems with industrial process
2003-09-Yan MISTRA KAM R&D Integration of energy technologies into forest industry Efficiency and Product Improvement
2003-09-Yan Future Energy Technologies n Integrated and Clean Energy Plant Multiple fuel feedstock and products n Larger becomes larger n Smaller becomes smaller Distributed power generation “Personal Turbine”
2003-09-Yan Modules and Integration Feedstocks Fossil - coal - gas - oil Opportunity Feedstocks - Biomass - Municipal waste - Refinery waste Fuel Upgrading Gas stream cleanup Process Options Gasification Combustion Heat exchange Separation Catalysis Fuel & Chemical Synthesis Energy Conversion - Turbine - Fuel Cells Output Options Electricity Chemicals Transportation Fuels Syngas Hydrogen Steam Ash/trace Elements CO2 Co-products CO 2 -Rich Stream
2003-09-Yan Summary – towards a sustainable energy future n Technologies innovation n Reduce our demands for services Better quality of life with enough to meet our needs -- not our wants! = Change Life Style !
2003-09-Yan Future: Kids’ dream Reality: to be or not to be ?
About Me n 1989, came to Sweden n 1991, PhD, KTH n 1997, Docent, KTH n 2001, Professor, LTU n Research Interests: –Advanced power generation cycles –Climate change mitigation technologies –Biomass energy systems –Thermodynamic properties of working fluids