2 What Is Gender? Sex: Biological differences Gender: Sociocultural differencesGender is a constant, but gender role is defined by society.
3 Biological, Social, and Cognitive Influences on Gender Biological InfluencesPubertal Change and SexualityFreud and EriksonEvolutionary Psychology and GenderBecause of pubertal changes, sexuality plays amore important role in gender development for adolescents than for children.Freud and Erikson ideas are that anatomy is destiny. Today’s developmentalists are interactionists when biological and environmental influences on gender are at issue.In the evolutionary psychology view, evolutionary adaptations produced psychological sex differences especially in the area of mate selection.
4 Biological, Social, and Cognitive Influences on Gender Social InfluencesParental InfluencesPeersSchool and Teacher InfluencesMass-Media InfluencesBoth identification theory and social cognitive theory emphasize the adoption of parents’ gender-appropriate behavior.Peers are especially adept at rewarding gender-appropriate behavior.There is still concern about gender inequity in education.Despite improvements, TV still portrays males as more competent than females.
5 Biological, Social, and Cognitive Influences on Gender Cognitive development theoryKohlbergBem: Gender schema theorygender typingSocial learning theoryIn Cognitive Development theory, children’s gender-typing occurs after they have developed a concept of gender. Once they begin to consistently conceive themselves as male or female, children organize their world on the basis of gender.In Gender Schema theory, an individual’s attention and behavior are guided by an internal motivation to conform to gender-based sociocultural standards and stereotypes.
6 Gender Stereotypes, Similarities, and Differences Gender Stereotyping“Feminine”“Masculine”SexismGender Similarities and DifferencesGender stereotypes are widespread around the world, especially emphasizing the male’s power and the female’s nurturance.There are a number of physical/biological differences between males and females, but some experts argue that cognitive differences have been exaggerated. For some areas of achievement, gender differences exist, for others they do not.“There is more difference within the sexes than between them.”- Ivy Compton-Burnett
7 Gender Stereotypes, Similarities, and Differences Gender ControversyGender in ContextCurrently there is considerable controversy over how similar or different females and males are in a number of areas.When thinking about gender similarities and differences, keep in mind that the context in which females and males are thinking, feeling, and behaving should be taken into account.
8 Gender-Role Classification Traditional Gender Roles“Boys should grow up to be masculine”“Girls should grow up to be feminine”Project 1 or 2 from the Instructor’s Manual provides good exercises for gender roles.
9 Gender-Role Classification Traditional Gender RolesAndrogynyTraditional Masculinity and Problem Behaviors in Adolescent MalesGender-Role Transcendence
10 Gender-Role Classification Traditional Masculinity and ProblemBehaviors in Adolescent MalesGender Role TranscendenceWhat defines traditional masculinity in many western cultures includes behaviors that can be problematic for many male adolescents. Researchers have found that adolescents who are high in masculinity often show problem behaviors such as drug use and delinquency.One alternative to androgyny is gender-role transcendence: evaluating individuals not on the basis of their gender but instead on the basis of what they are like as a person.
11 Developmental Changes and Junctures Early Adolescence and Gender IntensificationsIs Early Adolescence a Critical Juncture for Females?The gender intensification hypothesis states that psychological and behavioral differences between boys and girls become greater during adolescence because of increased socialization pressures to conform to traditional gender roles.Gilligan believes that girls become aware that their intense interest in intimacy is not prized by the male-dominant society thus making it a critical juncture.
12 Women’s and Men’s Issues Women’s IssuesIncrease self-determinationIncrease self-motivationBe strong, assertive, independentMen’s IssuesConsiderable role strainImprove emotional developmentImprove social relationships