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**Wireless and Mobile Communication Systems**

Lecture Slide Part 1 Version Mohd Nazri Mahmud

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**Fading Large-scale fading (shadowing) Small-scale fading (multipath)**

Long term variation in the mean signal level caused by the mobile unit moving into the shadow of surrounding objects Small-scale fading (multipath) Short term fluctuation in the signal amplitude caused by the local multipath Reference for Fading: Mobile Wireless Communications by Mischa Schwartz

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Shadow fading Long term shadow fading due to variations in radio signal power due to encounters with terrain obstructions such as hills or manmade structures such as buildings The measured signal power differ substantially at different locations even though at the same radial distance from a transmitter Represents the medium scale fluctuations of the radio signal strength over distances from tens to hundreds of meters

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Shadow Fading Many empirical studies demonstrate that the received mean power fluctuates about the average power with a log-normal distribution Can be modelled by a gaussian random variable with standard deviation, δ

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**Shadow fading Consider the signal power equation in dB.**

The shadow-fading random variable x, measured in dB is taken to be a zero-mean gaussian random variable with variance δ2

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**Shadow fading Ignoring the multipath effect, α**

The term pdB is the local-mean power modelled as a gaussian random variable with average value The pdf for pdB is

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**Shadow fading Typical value of δ range from 6 to 10dB**

Shadowing complicates cellular planning To fully predict shadowing effect, up-to-date and highly detailed terrain data bases are needed

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Multipath fading A small scale fading that describes short-term, rapid amplitude fluctuations of the received signal during a short period of time The actual power received over a much smaller distance vary considerably due to the destructive/constructive interference of multiple signals that follow multiple paths to the receiver The direct ray is actually made up of many rays due to scattering multiple times by obstructions along its path, all travelling about the same distance Each of these rays appearing at the receiver will differ randomly in amplitude and phase due to the scattering

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Multipath fading

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Multipath fading Small-scale fading can be further classified into flat(or non-selective) fading and frequency selective fading Flat fading small-scale fading is defined as being flat if the received multipath components of a symbol do not extend beyond the symbol’s time duration If the delay of the multipath components with respect to the main component is smaller than the symbol’s duration time, a channel is said to be subject to flat fading

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Multipath fading In a flat fading channel inter-symbol interference (ISI) is absent The channel has a constant gain and a linear phase response over a bandwidth that is greater than the bandwidth of the transmitted signal. The spectral characteristics of the transmitted signal are preserved at the receiver The channel does not cause any non-linear distortion due to time dispersion However, the strength of the received signal generally changes slowly in time due to fluctuations caused by multipath

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Multipath fading In a flat-fading channel, the bandwidth of the transmitted signal, Bs is much less than the Coherence bandwidth, Bc of the channel The symbol period of the transmitted signal is much greater than the delay spread The delay spread, is the variation in the propagation delays of multiple scattered rays Typical values of delay spread are 0.2µs (rural area), 0.5µs (suburban area), 3-8µs (urban area), <2 µs (urban microcell) and ns (indoor picocell)

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**Frequency selective fading**

small-scale fading is defined as being frequency selective if the received multipath components of a symbol extend beyond the symbol’s time duration The effect of multipath fading on the reception of signals depends on the signal bandwidth For relatively large bandwidth, different parts of the transmitted signal spectrum are attenuated differently, This is manifested in the inter-symbol interference (ISI)

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**Frequency selective fading**

If the delay of the multipath components with respect to the main component is larger than the symbol’s duration time, a channel is said to be subject to frequency selective fading The received signal includes multiple versions of the same symbol, each one attenuated (faded) and delayed. The received signal is distorted producing ISI

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**Frequency selective fading**

The channel has a constant gain and a linear phase response over a bandwidth that is much smaller than the bandwidth of the transmitted signal. The spectral characteristics of the transmitted signal are not preserved at the receiver Certain frequency components have larger gains than others

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**Frequency selective fading**

the bandwidth of the transmitted signal, Bs is much greater than the Coherence bandwidth of the channel The symbol period of the transmitted signal is much smaller than the delay spread Digital symbol intervals, Ts smaller than 5 or 6 times the delay spread,ds give rise to frequency selective fading (Ts <2πds) Typical values of delay spread are 0.2µs (rural area), 0.5µs (suburban area), 3-8µs (urban area), <2 µs (urban microcell) and ns (indoor picocell)

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Multipath fading For flat fading, it is found that the multipath can be modelled by using the Rayleigh/Ricean statistics With Rayleigh statistics, the pdf of the random variable α is given by

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Multipath fading

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**Multipath fading-Rayleigh**

Rayleigh fading is viewed as a reasonable model for urban environments where there are many objects in the environment that scatter the radio signal before it arrives at the receiver there is no dominant propagation along a LOS between the transmitter and receiver. The central limit theorem holds that, if there is sufficiently much scatter, the channel impulse response will be well-modelled as a Gaussian process irrespective of the distribution of the individual components such a process will have zero mean and phase evenly distributted between 0 and 2π radians. The envelope of the channel response will therefore be Rayleigh distributed

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Multipath fading

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**Multipath fading-Rician**

If the environment is such that, in addition to the scattering, there is a strongly dominant signal seen at the receiver, usually caused by a LOS, then the mean of the random process will no longer be zero, varying instead around the power-level of the dominant path. Such a situation may be better modelled as Rician fading.

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Multipath fading

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**Small-scale fading due to movements: Doppler shift**

How rapidly the channel fades will be affected by how fast the receiver and/or transmitter are moving Motion causes Doppler shift in the received signal components the change in frequency of a wave for a receiver moving relative to the transmitter

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Doppler shift Say a mobile phone moving at velocity v km/hr in the x direction and the radio wave impinging on the receiver at an angle βk The motion introduces a Doppler frequency shift, fk = vcos βk/λ If the ray is directed opposite to the mobile’s motion (β=0), then fk=v/λ The frequency of the signal has increased by the Doppler spread, fk

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Fast and Slow Fading Slow or fast fading depends on the coherence time, Tc Coherence time is the measure of period over which the fading process is correlated Tc is related to the delay spread, Tc=1/ds The fading is said to be slow if the symbol duration, Ts is smaller than the coherence time (or the bandwidth of the signal is greater than the Doppler spread.

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Time selective fading Occurs when the channel changes its characteristics during signal transmission This is due to the relative mobility of the transmitter and the receiver or some other time-varying behaviour in the propagation environment This causes the overall radio channel to be time-variant with time-varying delays and attenuations for the individual multipath components Receiver mobility causes the signal to change in comparison with the coherence time, Tc=0.18/fm where fm=the maximum Doppler frequency. The Doppler effect leads to time selective fading if Ts>Tc However, if the signal itself changes rapidly enough with respect to the reciprocal of the Doppler maximum frequency spread, fm , distortion will not happen There is a minimum bandwidth beyond which the time selective fading can be eliminated

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Assignments A wireless LAN system operates at a data rate of 54 Mbps. Determine whether or not this signal will encounter a frequency selective fading in the following areas Rural area Urban area Indoor area

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