# Physics 218 Lecture 21 Dr. David Toback Physics 218, Lecture XXI.

## Presentation on theme: "Physics 218 Lecture 21 Dr. David Toback Physics 218, Lecture XXI."— Presentation transcript:

Physics 218 Lecture 21 Dr. David Toback Physics 218, Lecture XXI

Schedule for the Rest of the Semester
Today: Chapter 12 Tuesday Nov 21st: Exam 3 Thursday Nov 23rd: No class, Thanksgiving Tuesday November 28th: Chapter 13, Part 1 Thursday November 30th: Chapter 13, Part 2 Tuesday December 5th: Final Exam Review No lecture on December 7th (Reading day) Final exam is Monday, December 11th, 1-3PM We will skip Chapter 15 Physics 218, Lecture XXI

Newton’s gravitational law Dynamics and Gravity
Chapter 12: Overview Newton’s gravitational law Dynamics and Gravity Gravity and Uniform Circular Motion Escape Velocity Physics 218, Lecture XXI

Physics 218, Lecture XXI

“Every particle in the universe attracts every other particle”
Gravitation Newton’s law of Universal Gravitation “Every particle in the universe attracts every other particle” Physics 218, Lecture XXI

Large number of scales Kinda amazing!
Gravity covers the attraction between An apple near the earth The earth and the moon The earth and the sun The sun and our galaxy Our galaxy and the universe Every particle in the universe and an apple The Earth and you Bevo and Reveille Physics 218, Lecture XXI

Newton’s Law “Every particle in the universe attracts every other particle with a force that is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. This force acts along the line joining the particles” Gravity has a magnitude and direction  Gravity is a force Physics 218, Lecture XXI

Distance between the masses
The Force of Gravity Direction of the force Distance between the masses Physics 218, Lecture XXI

The motion of the moon and the planets
One of the great achievements of physics is that it explains the motion of planets It took awhile, but they eventually figured out that the motion of the planets made much more sense if one assumed that the Sun was the center of motion rather than the Earth Newton was able to use his gravitational law and Uniform Circular Motion to “Predict” these observations Physics 218, Lecture XXI

Gravity and Circular Motion
Use the force of gravity along with other forces in force diagrams Circular motion is motion with the acceleration pointed towards the center of the circle The Earth is a good “center” acceleration for Satellites and Moons Physics 218, Lecture XXI

Binary System Two equal mass stars maintain a constant distance RS apart and rotate about a point, midway between them, at a revolution rate of once per time T What must be the mass of each star? RS Physics 218, Lecture XXI

Gravitational Potential Energy
How much potential energy does a ball of mass m have in outer space? Assuming you know ME and G, calculate how much work you would have to do move a ball from the surface of the earth to some distance R R Physics 218, Lecture XXI

Escape Velocity What happens if I throw a ball up in the air? Will it fall down? What if I throw it up really fast? What if I throw it up REALLY fast? Can I throw it up so fast that it will never come down? How fast would that be? Physics 218, Lecture XXI

Example: Geosynchronous Satellite
A satellite is in orbit around the Earth and its speed is such that it always stays above the same point on the earth throughout the day. Assuming a spherical Earth with mass ME, determine the height of the satellite (from the center of the Earth) in terms of the period, ME and G Physics 218, Lecture XXI

Next Week Monday: Chapter 11 HW due Tuesday: Exam 3
Covers Chapter 8 through 11 Only sections listed on the syllabus Mini-practice exam is open and available for people who are caught up. Usual 5 points Thursday: Thanksgiving, no class Following Tuesday: Lecture on Chapter 13 Periodic Motion Physics 218, Lecture XXI

End of Lecture Notes Physics 218, Lecture XXI

Do not sell your textbook! You will need the same book for 208
Note: Do not sell your textbook! You will need the same book for 208 Physics 218, Lecture XXI

Three Bodies Three bodies of identical and known mass M form the vertices of an equilateral triangle of side L. They rotate in circular orbits around the center of the triangle and are held in place by their mutual gravitation. What is the speed of each? L Physics 218, Lecture XXI

Density of a Planet A satellite orbits very near a planet’s surface (I.e., R=RPlanet, but we don’t know R) with period T. What is the density of the planet in terms of the measured period T? Physics 218, Lecture XXI

Kepler’s 1st Law Kepler: The path of each planet about the Sun is an ellipse with the Sun at one focus. Newton: Gravity gives a center seeking force! Centripetal forces can lead to both elliptical motion or circular motion (circular motion is just a special case which we happen to have studied already!) Physics 218, Lecture XXI

Kepler’s 2nd Law Kepler: Each planet moves so that an imaginary line drawn from the Sun to the planet sweeps out area in equal periods of time Newton: Can show this, but it’ll be easier when we get to angular momentum. We’ll come back to this later Physics 218, Lecture XXI

For a Circle S = Radius Kepler’s 3rd Law
Kepler: The ratio of the squares of the periods of any two planets revolving about the Sun is equal to the ratio of the cubes of their semi-major axes. For a Circle S = Radius Physics 218, Lecture XXI

Derivation of 3rd Law for a Circle
Let’s say there are two small planets revolving around the sun in circular motion with periods T1 and T2 and radii R1 and R2 respectively. Use Newton’s laws to show the following: Assume the masses of the planets are so small or that they are so far apart that we may neglect the gravitational attraction between the two. Physics 218, Lecture XXI

Understanding the motion of planets
One of the great achievements of physics is that it explains the motion of planets It took awhile, but they eventually figured out that the motion of the planets made much more sense if one assumed that the Sun was the center of motion rather than the Earth Then Kepler made some important observations WAY before Newton Newton was able to “Predict” these observations (and now so are we…) Physics 218, Lecture XXI

A way simplify problems
It takes some fancy integration, but one can show that we can “model” the Earth as if all the mass were concentrated at its center One can model any sphere as a point This is why we like to model things as spheres in the first place. Physics 218, Lecture XXI

Calculate the Magnitude of g
For a person on the earth what is g. Use MEarth = 5.97*1024 kg G = 6.67*10-11 N*m2/kg2 R = REarth = 6.38*106 m Physics 218, Lecture XXI

Ok… So what? A single formula can show that:
the acceleration of an apple towards the Earth has magnitude g and is pointing down as you may have noticed, Bevo and Reveille aren’t attracted to each other very much Physics 218, Lecture XXI

Bevo and Reveille Bevo and Reveille have masses mB and mR and are standing D meters apart. Despite what you might like to believe, what is the attraction between them? More specifically, find Reveille’s acceleration. Hint: Assume a spherical cow Perhaps this explains why we’ve never observed any attraction… Physics 218, Lecture XXI

How to solve these types of problems
Some thoughts What keeps a satellite up? Its speed |Accel| = v2/r |Force| = ma = mv2/r The trick is going to be to ask the question What are the forces? Is it in uniform circular motion? If so, we can use Newton’s law: FGravity = FUniform Circular Motion Physics 218, Lecture XXI

Space craft in Orbit A space craft, with mass m, is circling the earth at radius R = 2rEarth. What is the force on the space craft in terms of g and m? Model the space craft as a single point near the Earth which we model as a point at its center Physics 218, Lecture XXI

Satellites/Orbiting Problems
A satellite problem is a good example of the substantive problems we need to be able to solve. Predict the outcome of the experiment Physics 218, Lecture XXI

Weightlessness What is the weight of the person in the figure?
What is the difference between being in “free fall” and being “out of the reach of large gravitational forces?” Physics 218, Lecture XXI

Throwing a Baseball A person throws a baseball at 100 km/hr, but it is attracted back towards him because of gravity. Estimate the force 1 Meter away? Assuming constant acceleration (Bad assumption), how long does it take to turn around? Physics 218, Lecture XXI

Vector Form Physics 218, Lecture XXI

More on Vector Form Physics 218, Lecture XXI

Download ppt "Physics 218 Lecture 21 Dr. David Toback Physics 218, Lecture XXI."

Similar presentations