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History of Comparative Education Classification of the field today

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1 History of Comparative Education Classification of the field today
Last Three Weeks History of Comparative Education Classification of the field today Purposes of comparison and link to different professions Concept of ‘Educational Transfer’ Models to conceptualize comparisons What institutions are involved Educational opportunity as transitions Alternative approaches to think about Education’s contribution to Society This Week A framework to think about educational opportunity Repetition and Student Flows Urban Rural Divides Education and Post Conflict Situations 1

2 Equality of Educational Opportunity
Equality of Outcomes (Social and Cultural Capital) Options in Life. Equality of Learning Outputs Equality of Processes Equality of Inputs Equality of Access

3 Key Indicators Initial Access to School Gross Enrollment Rates
Net Enrollment Rates Repetition Rates Student Flows –completion rates— School Life Expectancy Learning Skills

4 Student Flows Repetition Completion explain student flow simulation

5 Repetition. Why worry about it?
Isn’t repetition a second chance? An extension of learning time? High Levels –probably higher than reported Consequences to students –time to graduate, impact on self, leads to dropout? Under-age and over-age children Evidence of low levels of academic achievement?

6 Why do children repeat grades?
Because they are not ready to meet the academic expectations of the grade Because their teachers don’t teach effectively Because their parents do not support their academic work Because the curriculum is too demanding Because there are not enough spaces for them in the next grade

7 What causes repetition? --modeling education processes--
Household factors. Disproportionately among low SES children. Distinction between lower stage repetition and later grade repetition Causal paths: poverty—nutrition—absenteeism BUT demand factors MEDIATED by school factors or in interaction School factors High prevalence in rural, multigraded schools Inbalances in class size among early and upper grades Evaluation standards used by teachers

8 Trends of Analysis of Repetition
Automatic Promotion Raise opportunities to learn Change cultures of repetition Role of cultural context “education systems vary enormously in terms of the incidence, causes and consequences of repetition.” Repetition Rates have systemic causes

9 Policy Options Comprehensive multipronged strategies home/school
(e.g. adult literacy, mid-day meals, better school facilities, more textbooks, inservice training, and greater community involvement in schooling or strategies to improve readiness including nutrition, health and pre-school education; involving communities).

10 Prioritizing interventions
Home based Increase equity (remove fees and scholarships) Increase school fit (parental involvement, local control, enforce laws) Increase school readiness (parent education, community health and nutrition, infant stimulation) School based Increase school readiness (early entry, preschool provision) Increase access (enforce laws, fund school by attendance, eliminate fees, add grades or cluster schools, incentives to attract teachers to rural areas). Increase quality (reduce class size, lengthen school year/day, improve teacher quality, increase supervision, provide free textbooks) Improve assessment (competency based objectives, criterion referenced testing, performance based incentives for schools). Need for Systemic Sectoral Interventions.

11 Dimensions of educational inequality:
·        Racial Inequality ·        Gender Inequality ·        Casts Inequality ·        Socio-economic inequality ·        Regional inequality

12 Equality of Educational Opportunity
Equality of Outcomes (Social and Cultural Capital) Options in Life. Equality of Learning Outputs Equality of Processes Equality of Inputs Equality of Access Equality and Equity

13 Based on this video, discuss in small groups equality of opportunity
for these children at the various levels in the model we have just reviewed

14 Equality of Inputs Per-Pupil expenditures Teacher characteristics
Instructional Resources Physical facilities  Learning outputs and outcomes from prior levels. The role of school segregation

15 Equality of Processes Instructional Practices Teacher responsiveness
Time on task Fit between curriculum and student background Language of instruction

16 Equality of Outputs Results tied to curriculum objectives
Academic Skills Educational Attainment

17 Indicators of Inequality
Distribution of spending Distribution of attainment Distribution of achievement

18 Urban-Rural Divides

19 Rural-Urban-Learning Gaps in SSA

20 Rural-Urban Differences
Older Students Lower SES Greater Percentage of Repeaters Lower Average SES Buildings in worse condition Less school materials Less instructional resources Teachers lower reading ability

21 Half of the Gap is Accounted for by Individual Differences among students


23 Small Group Discussion
Discuss in small groups: Based on the sources of the urban-rural gap, what are some options to close this gap?

24 Education and Conflict

25 Education, Conflict and Violence
Emergencies. Relief and Development Particular dimensions of Conflict Conflict as the antithesis of development Impact of Conflict on Education Can Education Prevent Conflict? Education and reconciliation and reconstruction

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