History of Comparative Education Classification of the field today
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1 History of Comparative Education Classification of the field today Last Three WeeksHistory of Comparative EducationClassification of the field todayPurposes of comparison and link to different professionsConcept of ‘Educational Transfer’Models to conceptualize comparisonsWhat institutions are involvedEducational opportunity as transitionsAlternative approaches to think about Education’s contribution to SocietyThis WeekA framework to think about educational opportunityRepetition and Student FlowsUrban Rural DividesEducation and Post Conflict Situations1
2 Equality of Educational Opportunity Equality of Outcomes (Social and Cultural Capital) Options in Life.Equality of Learning OutputsEquality of ProcessesEquality of InputsEquality of Access
3 Key Indicators Initial Access to School Gross Enrollment Rates Net Enrollment RatesRepetition RatesStudent Flows –completion rates—School Life ExpectancyLearningSkills
5 Repetition. Why worry about it? Isn’t repetition a second chance? An extension of learning time?High Levels –probably higher than reportedConsequences to students –time to graduate, impact on self, leads to dropout?Under-age and over-age childrenEvidence of low levels of academic achievement?
6 Why do children repeat grades? Because they are not ready to meet the academic expectations of the gradeBecause their teachers don’t teach effectivelyBecause their parents do not support their academic workBecause the curriculum is too demandingBecause there are not enough spaces for them in the next grade
7 What causes repetition? --modeling education processes-- Household factors.Disproportionately among low SES children.Distinction between lower stage repetition and later grade repetitionCausal paths: poverty—nutrition—absenteeismBUT demand factors MEDIATED by school factors or in interactionSchool factorsHigh prevalence in rural, multigraded schoolsInbalances in class size among early and upper gradesEvaluation standards used by teachers
8 Trends of Analysis of Repetition Automatic PromotionRaise opportunities to learnChange cultures of repetitionRole of cultural context “education systems vary enormously in terms of the incidence, causes and consequences of repetition.”Repetition Rates have systemic causes
9 Policy Options Comprehensive multipronged strategies home/school (e.g. adult literacy, mid-day meals, better school facilities, more textbooks, inservice training, and greater community involvement in schooling or strategies to improve readiness including nutrition, health and pre-school education; involving communities).
10 Prioritizing interventions Home basedIncrease equity (remove fees and scholarships)Increase school fit (parental involvement, local control, enforce laws)Increase school readiness (parent education, community health and nutrition, infant stimulation)School basedIncrease school readiness (early entry, preschool provision)Increase access (enforce laws, fund school by attendance, eliminate fees, add grades or cluster schools, incentives to attract teachers to rural areas).Increase quality (reduce class size, lengthen school year/day, improve teacher quality, increase supervision, provide free textbooks)Improve assessment (competency based objectives, criterion referenced testing, performance based incentives for schools).Need for Systemic Sectoral Interventions.
12 Equality of Educational Opportunity Equality of Outcomes (Social and Cultural Capital) Options in Life.Equality of Learning OutputsEquality of ProcessesEquality of InputsEquality of AccessEquality and Equity
13 Based on this video, discuss in small groups equality of opportunity for these children at the various levels in the model we have just reviewed
14 Equality of Inputs Per-Pupil expenditures Teacher characteristics Instructional ResourcesPhysical facilities Learning outputs and outcomes from prior levels.The role of school segregation
15 Equality of Processes Instructional Practices Teacher responsiveness Time on taskFit between curriculum and student backgroundLanguage of instruction
16 Equality of Outputs Results tied to curriculum objectives Academic SkillsEducational Attainment
17 Indicators of Inequality Distribution of spendingDistribution of attainmentDistribution of achievement
25 Education, Conflict and Violence Emergencies. Relief and DevelopmentParticular dimensions of ConflictConflict as the antithesis of developmentImpact of Conflict on EducationCan Education Prevent Conflict?Education and reconciliation and reconstruction