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EECS 598: Background in Theory of Computation Igor L. Markov and John P. Hayes

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1 EECS 598: Background in Theory of Computation Igor L. Markov and John P. Hayes

2 Outline On computational models … More on terminology and notation Representing states in a computer Tensor products (again) Postulates of Q.M. specified for Q.C. Handling the probabilistic nature of quantum computation Entanglement

3 Parameters of algorithms… Execution Time – Wall-clock time – Asymptotic time Memory (size) Ease of programming Worst, best, average, amortized, typical Multiple objectives -> often no single winner – Cost trade-offs

4 Principle of Invariance Challenges for analysis of [time] complexity – Different hardware executes different #instr./sec – Need a uniform measure of time complexity Solution: measure constant-time steps – Will be off by at most a constant Principle of invariance – Two implementations of an algorithm (when executed on two actual computers) will not differ in time complexity by more than a constant – This is not a theorem ! (unlike, e.g., mathematical induction)

5 Comparing algorithms POI: A similar situation with memory POI gives hope to compare algorithms, but does not provide a good mechanism What we want: – Equivalence relations for algorithms (“as fast”) – Order relations (“as fast or faster”) Possible ideas: – Count elementary operations – Count elementary units of memory – Are all operations counted alike?

6 Elementary Operations What are elementary operations? – Operations whose execution time is bounded by a constant that does not depend on input values – Actual “seconds per operation” may be disregarded – But the very selection of elem. ops is still hardware-dependent !!! What about +, -, *, /,, =, ==, etc. of integers (or doubles)? – Yes, if integers have a bounded number of bits, e.g., 32 (or 64) – No, if the number of bits is not bounded What about function calls? What about memory accesses, e.g., a[i] ?

7 Computational Models A computational model is determined by – data representation and storage mechanisms – available elementary operations Most popular examples – Sequential and combinational Boolean circuits – EECS 270, 478 – [Non-] Deterministic Finite Automata (DFA/NFAs) – EECS 376(476),478 – Push-down automata – EECS 376(476) – Turing machines – EECS 376(476) – C programs, C++ programs – EECS 280, 281(380), 477 Computation models originate in technologies, physics, biology, etc – Parallel and distributed computing – Optical and DNA computing – Analog computing – Quantum computing

8 Measures of Algorithm Efficiency Based on Allowed Inputs Each set of input data gives a new measure of efficiency ! – Best cases – Worst cases – Representative / typical inputs (“benchmarks”) application-specific and domain-specific Averaged measures (give “expected efficiency”) – Consider different inputs in independent experiments – Average over a particular distribution of inputs Some inputs may happen more frequently than others Application-specific – Formal “average case” Averaged over the uniform distribution of all allowed inputs – Empirical evaluation by sampling Generate random samples of the target distribution Much faster than enumeration. Theorem: results are very close.

9 Asymptotic Complexity Recall that resource consumption is typically described by positive monotonic functions Asymptotic complexity measures (“on the order of”) – Main idea: Given f(n) and g(n), does the difference grow with n or stay the same ? Difference: f(n)/g(n). Only pay attention to the “limit behavior” @ n  ∞ If f(n)/g(n)  const as n  ∞ then f(n) is at least as good as g(n) if f(n)/g(n) ≤ const as n  ∞ then f(n) is at least as good as g(n) If f(x) is at least as good as g(x) and g(x) is at least as good as f(x), then the two functions are equivalent – Coarser than counts of elementary “things” (larger equiv. classes) e.g., “200 N steps” and “3 N + log(N) steps” are now equivalent – Much greater hardware independence

10 Complexity of Problems In a given computational model, for a given problem… consider best possible algorithms – In fact, whole equivalence classs of algos in terms of asymptotic worst-case complexity Call that the complexity of the problem Can often consider the same problem in multiple computational models – Will they have the same complexity?

11 Problem reductions Reduction of problem X to problem Y – Every instance of problem X translated into an instance of problem Y – Can apply any algorithm to solve Y – Every solution to a translated instance translated back Complexity of problem X is no more than sum of – Complexity of translating instances – Complexity of Y – Complexity of translating solutions back

12 Simulating Computational Models Write a C program that simulates a Turing machine Write a C interpreter as a program for a Turing machine The computational models are equivalent – Need to be careful about bit-sizes of basic types Modern Church-Turing thesis – Whatever you can do in terms of computation, can be done on a Turing machine “as efficiently” – “as efficiently” allows poly-time reductions (next slide) How would you prove/disprove this?

13 NP-complete problems P is the class of problems whose solutions can be found in poly-time NP is the class of problems whose solutions can be verified in polynomial time Polynomial-time reductions – Translations take poly-time NP-complete problems are those to which every other problem in NP reduces in poly-time NP=P? is an open question Orphan problems: – Those in NP\P but not NP-complete, assuming NP!=P – Number factoring – Graph auto-morphism

14 So, how could you disprove the modern Church-Turing thesis ? Find a problem that has different worst-case asymptotic complexity – In terms of Turing machines – In terms of, say, quantum computers Need to define a computational model first! Back to Quantum Mechanics – Measurements are not deterministic – So, need to include randomized algorithms – BPP (answers can be correct with probability ½+e) More complexity classes: – PSPACE – Decidable problems

15 Back to Quantum Mechanics Details of computational model should follow from the postulates of quantum mechanics Postulate 1: State Space (complex, Hilbert) – Will need only finite-dim vector spaces Postulate 2: Evolutions = Unitaries – Think of matrices Postulate 3: Quantum Measurement – Two forms: Hermitian observables and ortho-normal decompositions Postulate 4: Composite systems – Tensor products

16 Computing with functions Functions form a Hilbert space – It is infinite-dimensional, much harder to study – Inner product is defined via integrals – Examples of Hermitian ops: differential operators – Analogues of matrices: “kernels” Not nearly as nice as finite-dim matrices How do we get finite-dim spaces? – Restrict allowed states to a finite-dim subspace Special case: restrict functions to finite sets – All notions map to common finite-dim notions

17 Tensor products A state of a quantum system is f(x) A state of a composite system is f(x,y) We would like some construction that would give us the space of f(x,y) from spaces of g(x) and h(y) Tensor product – Take bases: g 1 (x), g 2 (x),… and h 1 (x), h 2 (x),… – Pair-wise product will be a basis of 2-var funcs Tensor product of operators

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