Introduction to Linguistics II Ling 2-121C, group b Lecture 3
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1 Introduction to Linguistics II Ling 2-121C, group b Lecture 3 Eleni MiltsakakiAUTHSpring 2006
2 Morphology review What is the subject matter of morphology? The study of the structure of wordsWhat is a word?An arbitrary pairing of sound and meaningWhat is a morpheme?Building blocks of complex words
3 Morphology review Explain the following distinctions: Content words and function wordsContent concepts, open classFunction grammatical function, closed classBound and free morphemesFree: independent words bound: affixesDerivational morphology and inflectional morphologyDerivational: root+bound morpheme=new word with new meaningInflectional: root+bound morpheme= new word with marking of some grammatical aspect
4 Morphology review Word formation How are new words created? Give an example of each of the following categoriesWord formation rules (derivations)CoiningCompoundingBlendingAcronymsClippingsBackformationConversion
5 Morphology review The hierarchical structure of words What’s the evidence?How do we represent the hierarchical structure of words?Think of an ambiguous word and represent the meanings in tree diagrams
6 Syntax What is syntax? The study of sentence structure Video: linear order
7 GrammaticalityGrammatical sentences are sequences of words that conform to the rules of syntax.Ungrammatical sentences violate syntactic rules
8 Grammaticality judgment Language speakers have intuitions about grammaticalityThe boy found the ballThe boy found quicklyThe boy found in the houseThe boy found the ball in the house
9 Grammaticality judgment The ability to make grammaticality judgments does NOT depend on:Having heard the sentence beforeEnormous crickets in pink socks danced at the promWhether a sentence is meaningful or notColorless green ideas sleep furiouslyThe truth of sentencesThe earth is flat
10 Grammaticality judgment UngrammaticalityYou may understand the meaning of a sentence and still judge it to be ungrammatical*The boy quickly in the house the ball found
11 Ambiguity Syntax can also account for multiple meanings ---AMBIGUITY Like words, sentences have hierarchical structure
12 Ambiguity The girl saw the man with the telescope. We can “tree” the ambiguity (will do so shortly after we look at sentence structure).
13 Practice Paraphrase to show the ambiguity The design has big squares and circlesTerry loves his wife and so do INo smoking section availableDick finally decided on the boatThe sheepdog is too hairy to eat
14 Sentence structureSyntactic rules determine the order of words in a sentence and how the words are groupedThe child found the puppyHow many groupings are possible?
16 Tree terminology Syntactic trees are upside down The root of the tree The leaves of the treeThe nodes of the treeMother-daughter relationSiblings: sister-sister relationDominate relationImmediately dominate relation
17 Constituents The natural groupings of a sentence are constituents Our knowledge of the constituent structure can be represented with a tree
18 Syntactic categoriesA family of expressions that can substitute for one another retaining grammaticality is called a syntactic categoryA police officer found the puppy in the gardenYour neighbor found the puppy in the gardenThis yellow cat found the puppy in the gardenThey found the puppy in the gardenWhat syntactic category is the subject in the above sentences?Can you think of other syntactic categories?
20 Diagnostics for constituents Diagnostics for phrasal constituentsSubstitution/Pronoun substitutionMary loves apples.My sister loves everything she sees.Black cats detest green beans. They detest them.QuestionsWhat do you love? The cats/Cats with long fluffy tails.Where did Ali Baba go? To New York/On a long journey.Relocation (movement)I fed the cats. The cats, I fed.It-cleft focusI fed the cats. It was the cats that I fed.
21 Phrase structure trees Constituents can be represented graphically as nodes in a treeA tree diagram with syntactic category information is called a phrase structure treeThey represent (encode) three aspects of speakers’ syntactic knowledge:The linear order of wordsThe groupings of words into syntactic categoriesThe hierarchical structure of syntactic categories
22 Practice Draw phrase structure trees for the following sentences: The puppy found the childA frightened passenger landed the damaged planeThe house on the hill collapsed in the windThe ice meltedThe children put the toy in the boxThe old tree swayed in the wind
23 Are any strings represented as constituents that shouldn't be? Are any strings not represented as constituents that should be?Are any of the trees misleading in other respects?
24 Heads and complementsPhrase structure rules show relations between the members of the phraseA VP, for example, contains a V which is the head of the phraseThe VP may contain other categories but the entire phrase refers to what the head refersE.g. Put the puppy in the garden refers to the event of ‘putting’The other constituents in the phrase are complements
25 Heads and complementsEvery phrasal category has a head of its same syntactic type:VP: VNP: NPP: P etc.
26 Practice Find the head and the complements of the following NPs The man with the telescopeThe destruction of RomeA person worthy of praiseA boy who pitched a perfect game
27 Complement selectionWhether a verb takes more than one complement depends on the properties of the verbThe verb find is a transitive verb and requires an NP direct object complementThis information, selection, is included in the lexical entry of the word and explains for the grammaticality judgment of the following:The boy found the ball*They boy found quickly*The boy found in the house
28 Complement selectionSleep is intransitive, it cannot take an NP complementMichael slept*Michael slept a fish
29 Complement selectionThink takes (selects) a clausal complement. Tell selects for and NP and an S, feel selects an AP or an SI think that Sam won the raceI told Sam that Michael was on the bicycleThey felt strong as oxenThey feel that they can win*They feel
30 Complement selectionIt’s not only verbs that have selectional restrictionsBelief selects a PP or an SSympathy selects a PPTired selects a PP etc
31 The infinity of language aka recursionThe number of sentences in a language is infiniteThis is because sentences can be lengthened by various meansThe heart of this linguistic property is the ability to generate recursive structures
32 The infinity of language The is the farmer sowing the cornthat kept the cock that crowned in the morn,that waked the priest all shaven and shorn,that married the man all tattered and torn,that kissed the maiden all forlorn,that milked the cow with the crumpled horn,that tossed the dog,that worried the cat,that killed the rat,that ate the malt,that lay in the house that Jack built
33 Infinity of languageThe girl with the feather on the ribbon on the brimTree
34 Infinity of languageThe repetition of categories within categories is common in all languages and explains the infinity of languageOur brain capacity is finite and able to store only a finite number of categories and rules for their combinationThese finite means place an infinite set of sentences at our disposal