Systems Wireless EmBedded Welcome to the WeBS Retreat David Culler Eric Brewer, David Wagner Shankar Sastry, Kris Pister.
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Systems Wireless EmBedded Welcome to the WeBS Retreat David Culler Eric Brewer, David Wagner Shankar Sastry, Kris Pister
Systems Wireless EmBedded 1/12/2002WEBS Retreat2 Outline Introductions Background on the Project What Retreats are About Overview of the Retreat
Systems Wireless EmBedded 1/12/2002WEBS Retreat3 DARPA NEST program Goal: novel approaches to design and implementation of SW for networked embedded information systems enable “fine-grain” fusion of physical and information processes. Dependable, RT, distributed, embedded applns on 100-10,000 simple computing nodes, dynamically reconfigured to changing environment Closed loop interaction between physical and information system components –eg. MEMS-based control & health mgmt of platforms, smart structures, coordination of large groups of objects appln independent adaptable middleware for real-time coordination and synthesis
Systems Wireless EmBedded 1/12/2002WEBS Retreat4 NEST Topic Areas Application Independent Coordination Services –customizable, verified algorithms+code to support time- bounded coordination across NEST applns Time-Bounded Synthesis –theory and technology for time-bounded synthesis services => control sequences, schedules, configs, resource maps,... Service Composition and Adaptation –automated composition of coord service packages Open Experimental Platforms –physical system and software components –related challenge problems and integration experiments »used for affordable evaluation and demonstration of NEST technologies
Systems Wireless EmBedded 1/12/2002WEBS Retreat5 NEST in a nutshell Two Open Experimental Platforms –Boeing: tight, highly engineered, smart structures –UCB: flexible, low power, wireless, free space,... OEP must include challenge application Not enough to build it, must drive the middleware HW platform SW platform coordination services synthesis services composition services Challenge Application sensors actuators processing storage communication
Systems Wireless EmBedded 1/12/2002WEBS Retreat6 UCB redefined the program Smart Dust WeC Mote => TinyOS => Rene Platform –Concurrency framework –Messaging + Networking stacks (RF and Serial) –Basic Multihop routing –Crossbow manufacturing –29 Palms Sensit Demonstration We proposed to deliver a platform to the program 6 months after start of project!
Systems Wireless EmBedded 1/12/2002WEBS Retreat7 Statement of Work Develop sequence of open experimental platforms –basic services (time synch, trigger) Develop Challenge Application for NEST FSM high-concurrency programming environment Infrastructure support Adversarial simulation Macroprogramming unstructured aggregates Do challenge appln and integration experiments –env. monitor, distributed mapping, pursuer-evader
Systems Wireless EmBedded 1/12/2002WEBS Retreat8 NEST is one component of Activity Completion of Smart Dust Project Ongoing Sensor Webs Project –primarily focused on theoretical aspects Creation of Intel Research @ Berkeley –Extreme Networked Systems Lab CITRIS - Center for Information Technology Research in the Interests of Society
Systems Wireless EmBedded 1/12/2002WEBS Retreat9 Structural performance due to multi-directional ground motions (Glaser & CalTech). Wiring for traditional structural instrumentation + truckload of equipment Mote infrastructure 1515 1313 1414 6 5` 5` 1515 1 8 Mote Layout 1212 9 Comparison of Results
Systems Wireless EmBedded 1/12/2002WEBS Retreat10 Tokachi Port, Hokkaido - Liquifaction post-blast Rapid, cheap, installation of vertical array Virtual data logger High Confidence in Passive state Dense Distributed Data Analysis Reclamation
Systems Wireless EmBedded 1/12/2002WEBS Retreat11 DARPA NEST Open Experimental Platform 1,000 Micas Delivered to NEST Feb 02 500 to UCB (Nest, Millennium), 250 to Intel Crossbow continues to manufacture –new radio –new microcontroller 14 Demos in July
Systems Wireless EmBedded 1/12/2002WEBS Retreat12 NEST MICA architecture Atmel ATMEGA103 –4 Mhz 8-bit CPU –128KB Instruction Memory –4KB RAM 4 Mbit flash ( AT45DB041B) –SPI interface –1-4 uj/bit r/w RFM TR1000 radio –50 kb/s – ASK –Focused hardware acceleration Network programming Rich Expansion connector –i2c, SPI, GIO, 1-wire –Analog compare + interrupts TinyOS tool chain sub microsecond RF synchronization primitive 10 mW active, 40 uW passive 2xAA form factor Atmega103 Microcontroller TR 1000 Radio Transceiver 4Mbit External Flash 51-Pin I/O Expansion Connector Power Regulation MAX1678 (3V) DS2401 Unique ID 8 Analog I/O 8 Programming Lines SPI Bus Coprocessor Transmission Power Control Hardware Accelerators Digital I/O
Systems Wireless EmBedded 1/12/2002WEBS Retreat13 NEST Rich Sensor board PHOTO TEMP MAGNETOMETERACCELEROMETER MICROPHONE SOUNDER Mica PINS ADC Signals (ADC1-ADC6) I 2 C Bus On/Off Control Interrupt X Axis Y Axis Gain Adjustment Mic Signal Tone Intr 2.25 in 1.25 in Microphone Accelerometer Light Sensor Temperature Sensor SounderMagnetometer Environment Ranging Detection Movement
Systems Wireless EmBedded 1/12/2002WEBS Retreat14 TinyOS Application Graph RFM Radio byte Radio Packet UART Serial Packet ADC Tempphoto Active Messages clocks bit byte packet Route map routersensor appln application HW SW Example: ad hoc, multi-hop routing of photo sensor readings 3450 B code 226 B data Graph of cooperating state machines on shared stack
Systems Wireless EmBedded 1/12/2002WEBS Retreat15 NEST Challenge Appln level field (400-2500 m 2 ) with 5-15 tree-like obstacles Pursuers’ team –400-1000 nodes –3-5 ground pursuers, –1-2 aerial pursuers Evaders’ team –1-3 ground evaders Self organization of motes Localization of evaders –Evaders’ position and velocity estimation by sensor network –Communication of sensors’ estimates to ground pursuers Design of a pursuit strategy Minimize capture time and energy –accuracy of localization & synch –stability of network and dist. alg Localization Communication Synchronization Tracking Wor ld Sensor Interface Scheduler
Systems Wireless EmBedded 1/12/2002WEBS Retreat16 Control Signals to pursuer GPS vision Tactical Planner & Regulation Vehicle- level sensor fusion Strategy Planner Map Builder Pursuers’ communication infrastructure Nest Sensorweb Physical Platform Sensorial Information Single vehicle estimation and control layer Vehicle coordination layer
Systems Wireless EmBedded 1/12/2002WEBS Retreat17 Some of the demo applns
Systems Wireless EmBedded 1/12/2002WEBS Retreat18 Energy/Env Monitoring/Mgmt Cory Hall last summer Center for Built Env. Intel “Smart Lab” Cory Environment and asset tracking Etch. Smart-Alarm LBL Energy Mgmt Interactive Streaming Data Access Ubicomp / HCI Networking Management Privacy / Security
Systems Wireless EmBedded 1/12/2002WEBS Retreat19 Meeting Social Network
Systems Wireless EmBedded 1/12/2002WEBS Retreat20 Intel Demonstrating the Technology Intel Research Impact –800 multihop network at IDF (Aug 2001) –Intel Sales and Marketing (Jan 2002) –Intel Developers Forum (Feb 2002) 100 nodes in audience of 2000 Network Discovery Power-aware routing In-Network aggregation Silly voting demo Network in Marconi Center
Systems Wireless EmBedded 1/12/2002WEBS Retreat21 in situ habitat monitoring Acadia National Park Mt. Desert Island, ME Great Duck Island Nature Conservancy Alan Mainwaring @ Intel Research Packaging Sensor Suite Longevity Power Management Predictability Long-term Data Analysis Remote Management delay-tolerant network energy-based exp. design
Systems Wireless EmBedded 1/12/2002WEBS Retreat22 Smart Fire Helmet CO sensor interfaced to MICA Intended to provide chemical sensing in helmet Dick White
Systems Wireless EmBedded 1/12/2002WEBS Retreat23 Controlled Test Bench Well-defined position Parallel access to nodes Integrated with MatLab in situ programming Localization (RF, TOF) Distributed Algorithms Distributed Control Auto Calibration !!!!
Systems Wireless EmBedded 1/12/2002WEBS Retreat24 Wealth of Research Challenges Many highly constrained (energy & capability), connected devices –able to be casually deployed in infrastructure (existing or in design) –imperfect operation and reliability –operating in aggregate New family of issues across all the layers application service network system architecture technology mgmt / diag / debug algorithm / theory prog / data model
Systems Wireless EmBedded 1/12/2002WEBS Retreat25 Little History of Invention Often driven by the need to overcome hurdles, rather than opportunity for perfection Airbags => MEMS accelerometer –RF pressure gauge? Clusters US locomotive industry Balloon Frame House construction...
Systems Wireless EmBedded 1/12/2002WEBS Retreat26 Some of the things we’re seeing Concurrency + poor I/O hierarchy –event-driven fine-grain threading Simple radio + SW sampling –accelerators, low-power listen, wake-up, sampling, RSSI, time-stamp No routing, high error rate –application specific multihop, routing, aggregation –spatial redundancy Inaccessibility, limited radio –network programming, tiny Virtual machine Inconsistent sounders, tone detectors –auto-calibration Toy robots + network in the loop –closed loop control using sensor field –control in the face of errors, delay, & loss
Systems Wireless EmBedded 1/12/2002WEBS Retreat27 What did we say we would do?
Systems Wireless EmBedded 1/12/2002WEBS Retreat28 NEST SOW FY01 A. FY01 Production and Distribution of Testbed kits –Assemble ten (10) OEP1 Testbed kits each consisting of approximately 100 wireless networked sensor nodes, plus base-stations, lab programming harness, and software tools. –Distribute kits to project groups –PCB board manufacture and assembly will be out-sourced. B. FY01 Challenge Problem Development –Collateral work, in coordination with DARPA, developing Challenge Applications involving distributed control and large-scale for the OEP1. –Developing integration experiments related to Challenge Applications. C. FY01 NEST Emerging Platform Research Milestones and Work Items
Systems Wireless EmBedded 1/12/2002WEBS Retreat29 FY01 Platform Research 8/2001: Release OEP1 preliminary design document 12/2001: Release OEP v1. –Design, development and testing of OEP HW –Specifications, diagnostics –Open code release of Tiny OS version 1.0 & prog. env 1/2002: Tutorial Workshop and Distribution 1/2002 OEP1 Embedded Software Component –Evaluation of tiny stack of wireless networking components –Demonstration of »NEST application as collection of cooperating FSM components »preliminary dynamic ad hoc routing components »preliminary time synchronization beacon »preliminary tiny authentication and encryption protocol –Systematic analysis of the use of TinyOS commands, events, and tasks
Systems Wireless EmBedded 1/12/2002WEBS Retreat30 FY01 Platform Research 6/2002 Evaluation of OEP1 –Support facility for project groups using the platform. –Logging and analysis of platform usage, failure modes, energy profile. –Analysis of hardware design relative to evolving project needs –Analysis of v1 OS and programming environment relative to evolving project needs 6/2002 Emerging Platform Design Prototype –Design specification for robust version of TinyOS –Demonstration of reusable OS components for devices and network support –Design of low-level programming language for FSM components –Preliminary Analysis of techniques for resilient aggregation and random sampling
Systems Wireless EmBedded 1/12/2002WEBS Retreat31 FY 02 Platform Research Activities 9/2002 OEP2 proposed platform feature set document 12/2002 FSM-based Environment on OEP1 –Compiler/interpreter implemented for low-level FSM language. –Initial suite of resilient aggregation components –Initial Application Specific Virtual Machine 12/2002 Support for Systematic Empirical Studies –Prototype of adversarial simulation facility –Design of logging and trace collection facility –Evaluation of integration experiments 12/2002 Novel Platform Design –Initial Implementation of TinyOS version 2. –Initial Design of OEP2 node hardware, 6/2003 Algorithm design and analysis support –Complete FSM-based programming environment – Implementation of logging and trace collection facility. –Preliminary vis. and debugging tools for FSM prog. environment –Implementation of initial gather, scatter, select, and scan – Preliminary evaluation of secure aggregation.
Systems Wireless EmBedded 1/12/2002WEBS Retreat32 Challenge Application 1. Sensing and Updates of the Environment in Response to Events and Queries. 2. Distributed Map Building. –Tasking of 100s-1000s of map building entities –task based and dynamic depending on the usage of it 3. Pursuit Evasion Games September 02: Environmental Monitoring of floor sized spaces using networks of 100s of motes. September 03: Decentralized Map Building of indoor environments using both fixed and mobile SLAPs of the order of 250 motes. September 04: Preliminary Adversarial games using two networks of motes outdoors using coordination and information gathering by UAVs and UGVs. August 05. Capstone Demonstration of Pursuit Evasion Game.
Systems Wireless EmBedded 1/12/2002WEBS Retreat33 What retreats are about 6 month project checkpoint –milestones, accomplishments, shortfalls –course correction Students refine communication and investigation skills –interested benign audience, lots of feedback In depth exchange with industrial collaborators –discussion and feedback –close with feedback session Build team and cement connections Theme: Demonstrating NEST Technology
Systems Wireless EmBedded 1/12/2002WEBS Retreat34 Agenda NOW: Demonstration of distributed control crossing many aspects of the project M 4-6 Tech. beneath the Demo »Phil – Application Architecture »Robert - local processing »Jason - localization, leader election, robust communication »Shawn - camera control »Luca - tracking estimation »Sarah - COTS Bots »Bruno - Pursuer control Dinner Demo / Talks –Kamin - Time-of-flight Localization –Naveen - Location authentication –Alan, Joe - Habitat monitoring –Sam, Wei - In-network Query Processing
Systems Wireless EmBedded 1/12/2002WEBS Retreat35 Tuesday 8:30 - 10:00 Programming – Phil L. - Mate' Tiny Network Virtual Machine – David G. - NesC: programming support for TinyOS events – Eric B. - Macroprogramming 10:30 - 12:00 Breakout - Setting/Changing Direction –Network Service Definition, Platform evaluation –Distributed Mapping, Towards PEG Spec 12:00 - 1:00 Lunch 1:00 - 4:00 Recreation 4:00 - 6:00 New Directions –Jason H. - Putting TinyOS in Silicon –Chris K., Ying, Joe - Robust Routing with Demo/Vis – David W. - Security directions 7:30 - 9:00 Flexible Evening Session –Judy M. - Monitoring Structural Response to Earthquakes using Wireless Sensor Networks –Mike H. - New and future Crossbow motes w/ demo –Wild, Crazy, or Future ideas under gong
Systems Wireless EmBedded 1/12/2002WEBS Retreat36 Wednesday 7:30 - 8:30 Breakfast 8:30 - 9:30 Open Mic 9:30 - 10:30 Breakout Reports 10:30 - 11:00 Break and Checkout 11:00 - 12:00 Visitor Feedback 12:00 - 1:00 Lunch