Cardiovascular Disease: #1 Killer in America (500K/Yr) Increased incidence since the “Industrial Revolution” What effect will the “Technology Revolution” Have? Epidemiology Population Studies to discover associations between disease/FACTORS
PRIMARY RISK FACTORS: HYPERTENSION HYPERTENSION HYPERLIPIDEMIA HYPERLIPIDEMIA TOBACCO USE TOBACCO USE PHYSICAL INACTIVITY PHYSICAL INACTIVITY All of These are Preventable “LIFESTYLE CHOICES”… All of These are Preventable “LIFESTYLE CHOICES”…
Secondary Risk Factors Family History (close relative <60) Age Gender Race Obesity Diabetes Tough to Modify, eh?
What is Atherosclerosis? In a Word…”Fatty” “Arteries” (ok, so two words…) Normal Atherosclerotic
Myocardial Infarction Complete blockage of blood All cells “downstream” will die without blood supply First symptom of Infarct?... SUDDEN DEATH (only 50% survive)
Primary Risk Factor #1: Hypertension >140 /90 CHRONICALLY Damages Blood Vessels CAD is 6X as great in hypertensives Incidence of stroke & heart/kidney failure is directly related to HTN Most causes of HTN are not known
Hyperlipidemia Total Cholesterol: Protein Carriers: HDL / LDL Desirable TOTAL levels: < 200 mg/dl: Desirable 200-239:Borderline > 240 mg/dl:Very High
Low Density Lipoproteins (LDLs) “Bad” Cholesterol/Protein Complex Deposits Fat onto artery walls Linked to High Triglycerides (Associated with high fatty- sweet diet and glucose intolerance…more on that later)
High Density Lipoproteins (HDLs) “Good” Cholesterol/Protein Complex Carries Cholesterol to liver other organs for hormone synthesis etc. Activity, mono-unsaturated fats in diet may increase HDLs
HYPERLIPIDEMIA Desired Blood Lipid Levels: £ Total Cholesterol < 200 mg/dl £ LDL-C < 130 mg/dl £ HDL-C > 35 mg/dl £ Triglycerides < 130 A poor lipid profile will accelerate the atherogenic process.
Tobacco use (smoking, chew) Increases Blood Clotting activity Increases Blood Pressure Increases Heart Rate As if that’s not bad enough – Decreases O 2 Content of Blood Sounds like STRESS to me…
Physical Inactivity Independent Risk Factor! And Contributes to: Obesity Hypertension Hyperlipidemia (especially the worst kind) Diabetes
Percent of U.S. Population at Risk % BP 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 TCSmoke Inact
How do WSC Freshmen Rate? Based on Study by S.C. Glass & K.K. Glass 1995