1 Computing for Todays Yumei Huo Fall 2006. 2 Contents Discussion of the syllabus, requirements, topics to be covered, etc. Essential Computer Concepts.
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2 Contents Discussion of the syllabus, requirements, topics to be covered, etc. Essential Computer Concepts Exploring the basics of Windows XP
3 Contents Discussion of the syllabus, requirements, topics to be covered, etc. Essential Computer Concepts Exploring the basics of Windows XP
4 Contents Discussion of the syllabus, requirements, topics to be covered, etc. Essential Computer Concepts Exploring the basics of Windows XP File Management
5 What is a Computer? A computer is a device that: Accepts input Processes data Stores data Produces output
6 What is a Computer? A Computer System is made up of: Hardware—the physical components Software—the programs or lists of instructions
7 What is a Computer? Architecture or configuration is the design of the computer. As in, what does the computer consist of? Specification is the technical detail about each component. As in, how big is the monitor?
8 How a Computer Works The hardware, software, and you work together to complete tasks.
9 How a Computer Works The data you type into the computer is called input. The result of the computer processing your input is called output.
10 Types of Computers The categories of computers are: Personal or microcomputers Desktop Laptop Hand-held or PDAs Mainframes Supercomputers
11 Computer Hardware Computer hardware includes: Input devices Output devices Processing hardware Storage devices and media Keyboard,Mouse,Wireless pointer,Touch pad Monitors( CRT monitors and LCD ) and Printers
12 Computer Hardware The most important computer function is data processing. Processing hardware is used to process data.
13 Processing Hardware Computers interpret every signal as “on” or “off.” 1 (“on”) and 0 (“off”) are referred to as bits. Eight bits is a byte. Each byte represents a unique character.
14 Data Representation Storage and memory capacity is the amount of data the storage device can handle. Kilobyte (KB) is about one thousand bytes Megabyte (MB) is about one million bytes Gigabyte (GB) is about one billion bytes
15 Processing Hardware The two most important components of personal computers hardware are the microprocessor and memory. These two factors directly affect the computer’s price and performance.
16 The Microprocessor The microprocessor is a silicon chip designed to manipulate data. Its speed is determined by: Clock speed Word size Cache size
17 Memory Computer memory is a set of storage locations on the motherboard. There are four types of memory: Random access memory (RAM) Virtual memory Read-only memory Complementary metal oxide semiconductor memory (CMOS)
18 Memory A storage device receives data from RAM and writes it on a storage medium. Later, it can be read and sent back to RAM.
19 Storage Devices Data is stored as files. Executable files tell computers how to perform specific tasks. Data files are created by the user, usually with software.
20 Storage Devices Files are kept on storage devices. There are: Magnetic storage devices and Optical storage devices.
21 Storage Devices Some common magnetic storage devices are: Floppy disks Hard disk drives Tape drives Zip drives A floppy disk
22 Storage Devices Some common optical storage devices are: CD-ROM drives DVD drives CD-R drives CD-RW drives
23 Storage Devices CD-ROMs are for “read-only” access. CD-R drives allow you to record data on a CD-R disk. CD-RW drives allow you to write data on a CD-RW disk and access and modify data.
24 Data Communications Data Communications is the transmission of text, numeric, voice, or video data from one computer to another.
25 Data Communications The four essential components of data communications are: Sender Channel Receiver Protocols
26 Data Communications A sender is the computer that originates the message. The message is sent over a channel, such as a telephone.
27 Data Communications The receiver is the computer at the message’s destination. Protocols are the rules that establish the transfer of data between sender and receiver.
28 Data Bus The data bus is the communication between microprocessor, RAM, and the peripherals.
29 Data Bus An external peripheral device has a port or cable that connects it to the computer. Each port connects to a controller card, which plugs into expansion slots. The transmission protocol is handled by a device driver.
30 Data Bus Microcomputers have several types of ports: Parallel Serial Small computer system interface (SCSI) Musical instrument digital interface (MIDI) Universal serial bus (USB)
31 Networks A network connects one computer to other computers and peripherals. In a local area network (LAN), computers and peripherals are close to each other.
32 Networks A client/server network is a network with a file server. A file server acts as the central storage location. A network without a file server is a peer-to-peer network. All of the computers are equal.
34 Networks Each computer that is part of the network must have a network interface card and network software. Then it becomes a workstation. Any device connected to the network is called a node.
35 Telecommunications Telecommunications is communicating over a telephone. In the telecommunications process, the modem converts digital signals to analog signals at the sending site and a second modem converts them back at the receiving site.
37 The Internet The Internet is the world’s largest network. E-mail and the World Wide Web are two benefits of the Internet.
38 The Internet A hyperlink is a place on a Web page allowing you to connect to a particular file. http://www.course.com/newperspectives
39 The Internet A Web browser is the communications software that allows you to navigate the WWW.
40 Computer Software Software is the instructions and data that direct the computer to accomplish the task. It can refer to a single program or a package.
41 System Software System software helps the computer carry out its basic operating tasks. Application software helps the user carry out a variety of tasks.
42 System Software The four types of system software are: Operating systems Utilities Device drivers Programming languages
43 System Software The operating system controls the I/O or input/output, the flow of data from microprocessor to memory to peripherals. The operating system makes multitasking possible.
44 System Software Some types of system software include: Virus protection software Utilities Device drivers Computer programming languages
45 Application Software Application software enables you to perform specific tasks. Application software includes: Document production software Spreadsheet software Database management software Graphics and presentation software
46 Application Software Document production software includes word processing, desktop publishing, and Web authoring software that assist you in writing and formatting documents.
47 Application Software It often has grammar and spell-checking, thesaurus, search and replace, and template features.
48 Application Software With spreadsheet software, you can create formulas that perform calculations. Spreadsheet software creates worksheets with columns and rows. The intersection of a column and row is a cell.
49 Application Software Database management software creates structured databases to contain information. Graphics and presentation software allow you to create illustrations, diagrams, and charts to be presented or transmitted. Most allow you to include graphics.
50 Application Software Multimedia authoring software allows you to record digital sound files, video files, and animations that can be included in presentations and other documents.
51 Application Software Object linking and embedding (OLE) is the ability to use data from another file, called the source. This integration between applications has become an important skill in business.
52 Contents Discussion of the syllabus, requirements, topics to be covered, etc. Essential Computer Concepts Exploring the basics of Windows XP File Management
53 Starting Windows XP Windows XP Starts when computer is turned on Elements of the desktop Icon Pointer Desktop Date/Time control Taskbar Start button Notification area
54 Starting Windows XP Figure 1-1 shows the Windows XP desktop
55 Starting Windows XP Windows XP desktop uses a graphical user interface Graphical user interface (GUI) Displays icons to represent items stored on the computer Icons: Pictures of familiar objects
56 The Windows XP Desktop Desktop Area that appears on the screen when Windows XP starts A workspace for projects and tools Uses default settings when the computer is first started Default settings: settings preset by the operating system Appearance can be changed by the user
57 Using a Pointing Device A pointing device Helps the user interact with objects on the computer screen Comes in many shapes and sizes Mouse Most common pointing device
58 Pointing Pointing device Used to move the mouse pointer over objects on the desktop Pointing Positioning the pointer over a specific part of the screen
59 Pointing ScreenTips Appear when the mouse pointer is positioned over certain objects Display the purpose or function of the object Figure 1-3 shows a ScreenTip
60 Clicking Pressing a mouse button and immediately releasing it Menu A list of options which can be used to perform tasks Submenus Start menu Appears when the Start button is clicked Provides access to programs, documents, etc.
64 Viewing the contents of the Recycle Bin Click the desktop, and then point to the Recycle Bin icon. After a few moments, a ScreenTip appears that describes the Recycle Bin Click the left mouse button twice quickly to double-click the Recycle Bin icon. The Recycle Bin opens
69 Starting and Closing a Program Starting a program A program must be started before it can be used To start a program Click the Start button Locate and click the program’s name in the submenus An open or running program A program which has been started
71 Starting and Closing a Program Program button Appears on the taskbar for each open program Click to switch between open programs Close button Located in the upper-right corner of the program window Click to close the program
73 Running Multiple Programs Multitasking Ability to run multiple programs on Windows XP at the same time Allows the user to work on more than one project at a time The active program is the one you are currently using
74 Switching Between Programs Program buttons Located on the taskbar Offer the easiest way to switch between programs
75 Closing Inactive Programs from the Taskbar Options for closing a program Use the Close button on the title bar of the program window Use the shortcut menu associated with the program button on the taskbar
76 Anatomy of a Window A window A rectangular area of the screen that may contain A program Text Graphics Data
77 Anatomy of a Window Controls Located in a window Graphical or textual objects used for Manipulating the window Using the program Examples Menu bar Sizing buttons Status bar Title bar Toolbar Workspace
83 Using Program Menus Menus Organize a program’s features and available functions Menu bar Typically located at the top of the program window Shows the names of the menus
84 Selecting Options from a Menu Menu items or commands Choices for a menu Appear when a menu name is clicked Possible actions when clicked Immediately carry out an action Show submenus Ask the user for more information about the desired action
87 Using Toolbars Toolbars in the program window Provide one-click access to frequently used commands Have buttons grouped and organized by tasks To perform a command Select a toolbar button by clicking it
88 Using List Boxes and Scroll Bars List box Displays a list of available choices Usually includes Array buttons A scroll bar A scroll box
90 Using Dialog Box Controls Dialog box Opens when a menu command or item followed by an ellipsis is selected Allows the user to provide more information about how a program should carry out a task Groups different kinds of information in panes Panes: bordered rectangular areas
93 Changing the View Change the view by selecting an option from the View menu on the menu bar
94 Using Help Windows XP Help Provides on-screen information about programs Available by Clicking the Start button and selecting Help and Support from the Start menu Windows Help and Support Center window Provides access to Help files stored on the computer Help information stored on Microsoft’s Web site
96 Using Help Windows XP Help and Support window Organizes information into pages Home page Index page Favorites page History page Support page Options page Search box Used to search for keywords contained in Help pages
97 Shutting Down Windows XP Turn Off Computer option Located on the Start menu Turns off the computer Log Off option Located on the Start menu Logs off Windows XP but leaves the computer on