Presentation on theme: "SACHAR COMMITTEE REPORT ON"— Presentation transcript:
1 SACHAR COMMITTEE REPORT ON Social, Economic and Educational status of the Muslim Community of IndiaA Summary of major Findings and Some ObservationsAUSAF AHMADKolkataFeb 24, 2006
2 APPOINTMENT AND COMPOSITION OF HLC A HLC was appointed by the Prime Minister through a notification issued by his office on March 09, 2005 to prepare a report on social, economic and educational status of Muslim community of India.The HLC included the following:Justice Rajender SacharMr. Saiyid HamidMr. M.A. BasithDr. Rakesh BasantDr. Akhtar MajeedDr. Abu Saleh Sharif Member Secretary
3 TERMS OF REFERENCE In Which states, Districts, Blocks do Muslims live Geographical pattern of economic activityAsset base and Income levelsLevels of socio economic developmentEducational Progress, Literacy rates, drop out ratios etc.Relative Share in Public and Private sector employmentProportion of OBC in Muslim community and their problems.
4 SUBMISSION OF THE REPORT Presented to the Prime Minister on 17 NovTabled in the Lok Sabha on 30th NovAn Action Report would be tabled probably in the Budget session.The report is spread to 403 pages in 12 Chapters. Main report is up to P.254. Supporting material is presented in the statistical appendices.
5 Sources Of Data and Information Census of India 2001National Sample Survey, Round 61Reserve Bank of IndiaNABARD, SIDBI, NMDFC,Data from government commissions and other government organizations such as Backward classes Commission and NCAERT
6 WARNINGS !It is a Statistical Report. Should be interpreted with care.Statistical Statements are measures of tendency and not of the facts.The findings may lead to self pity.It may also lead to complacency: The government will do some thing.
7 ESTABLISHED FACTSRelative Social and Economic backwardness of Indian Muslims is well established through:HLC (Sachar Committee) 2006Gopal Singh Panel 1983Research Studies Ahmad (1992), Khalidi(1993), Zakaria (1994) etcStudies published by the IOS (1980s)HLC is not the first to bring out such findings. Some have said it is old wine in new bottle
8 QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS AND PERCEPTIONS Discussions with Muslim groups and intellectuals. The Chapter is based on the Perceptions of the Muslim Community.The Non implementation of several earlier commissions and committees has made Muslim community wary of any new initiatives.
9 QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS AND PERCEPTIONS Markers of Muslims identity : Beard, topi, Burqa,Markers of Muslim identity while adding to the distinctiveness of Indian Muslims have been a cause of concern for them in the Public Realm.Denominational institutions were not supposed to be only option available.
10 QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS AND PERCEPTIONS For large number of Muslim women in India today the safe space is within the boundaries of her home and communityPolice high handedness: “Whenever any incident occurs, Muslim boys are picked up by the Police.” “Every bearded person is considered an ISI Agent” etc.Migration and Ghetto-isation.
11 POPULATION: SIZE, DISTRIBUTION AND HEALTH CONDITIONS CENSUS 2001: Muslim population: 138 million, Estimate for millionPopulation growth has been high for all major religious minorities.The rise in the share of Muslims in total population has been less than one point a decade in the previous four decades.
12 POPULATION: SIZE, DISTRIBUTION AND HEALTH CONDITIONS There has been a decline in the Growth Rate of Muslims inOf 593 districts, 9 districts show more 75% concentration of Muslims. Muslim population ranges between 1-10% or more in 458 districts.Muslim population is younger with better sex ratio than other CRGs. Why? More research required on the issue.
13 POPULATION: SIZE, DISTRIBUTION AND HEALTH CONDITIONS Muslim population is also predominantly rural but the level of Urbanization is higher than the population as a whole.Infant and childhood mortality rates are slightly lower than the average.Life expectancy for Muslims is higher than the average by about one year.
14 POPULATION: SIZE, DISTRIBUTION AND HEALTH CONDITIONS There has been a large decline in fertility in all CRGs including the Muslims.Muslim fertility rates are a little higher in some states and in some states it falls within the same range.Muslim Child experiences a significantly higher risk of being underweight than a child belonging to other CRGs.More chances of Malnutrition.
15 POPULATION: SIZE, DISTRIBUTION AND HEALTH CONDITIONS Couples take decisions on fertility in their own interests rather than for raising community’s share in the population.Muslim population growth has slowed down, as fertility has declined substantially clearly showing that Muslims are well into a demographic transition.
16 EDUCATIONAL CONDITIONS OF INDIAN MUSLIMS Data analyzed have been obtained from Census 2001The literacy rates among Muslims in 2001 were below national average.The gap between Muslim and general literacy rates are higher in Urban areas and among women. [In rural areas, both Muslims and non-Muslims are illiterates.]Muslims Literacy rates are much lower than General and Other minorities but almost equal to SC/ ST
17 EDUCATIONAL CONDITIONS OF INDIAN MUSLIMS A comparison across SRGs reveals consistently lower levels of Mean years of schooling for the Muslim community.It is satisfactory to note that enrollment rations have risen lately. The increase in enrollment has been highest among SC/ ST followed by Muslims.As many 25% of Muslim Children in 6-14 age groups have either never attended a school or have dropped out.
18 EDUCATIONAL CONDITIONS OF INDIAN MUSLIMS Attainment levels of Muslims are close to or slightly higher than those of SC/ ST but much lower than those of other CRGs.Primary education is the main hurdle.: Inverse Pyramid HypothesisDrop out rates are higher at Primary, secondary, and higher level than other CRGs.
19 EDUCATIONAL CONDITIONS OF INDIAN MUSLIMS Setting up of JNVs in rural areas was expected to reduce supply side constraints on good and quality education …Muslim participation is not satisfactory.Technical training should be provided even to those who have not completed schooling.
20 Economy and Employment Low Work Participation ratio for men and womenWorker Population ratio for Muslim women are lowest among all CRGs.: A larger proportion of Muslim women are non-workers.High Share of Muslim workers engaged in self employment. Also in Urban areas and for women.Participation of Muslim workers in salaried jobs (both public and private Sectors) is quite low
21 Economy and Employment A significantly large proportion of Muslim workers are engaged in SSE (proprietary ownership)Muslim Participation in the formal sector employment is significantly less than the national averagePercentage of Muslim women workers undertaking work in their homes (70%) is much larger than for all workers (51%).
22 Economy and Employment Share of Muslim workers engaged in Agriculture is much lower than for other groupsParticipation of Muslims in traditional manufacturing and crafts is high.Among the non manufacturing retail and wholesale trade has a large proportion of Muslim presence.
23 Economy and Employment Apparel, Auto repair and Electrical machinery are important for Muslims.Participation of Muslims in security related activities [Police, Army, Jail] is considerably lower than their share in population.Bidi Workers, tailors, and mechanics need to provided with safety nets and social security.
24 Economy and Employment The participation of Muslims in professional and managerial cadre is low.Muslim workers are vulnerable with no written contracts and lack of social security measures.Muslim workers get lower daily earning than other CRGs.
25 Economy and Employment Among Urban male workers, the probability of Muslim workers taking up regular work is the lowest while that of SC/ ST worker is the highest.Improvement requires skill development and flow of credit in those sectors and regions in which Muslim employment is concentrated.
26 ACCESS TO BANK CREDITIniquitous access to public and private banking institutions across SRGs can perpetuate disparities.Share of Muslims on Amount Outstanding is only 4.7% against 6.5% for other minoritiesOn average, the amount outstanding per account is half of that of other minorities.
27 ACCESS TO BANK CREDITRBI efforts under 15 point program to extend banking facilities benefited only other minorities marginalizing Muslims.The share of Muslims in deposit account is also much lower than their population share.Comment: Extent of Bank Use and Credit Worthiness, Recent decisions of the RBI
28 ACCESS TO SOCIAL AND PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE There are noteworthy differentials in the availability, accessibility and utilization of infrastructure across SRGs.Inverse relationship between prop. of Muslim population and availability of educational infrastructure in small villages.
29 ACCESS TO SOCIAL AND PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE Muslim concentration villages are not well served with asphalted approach roads and local bus stopsConcentration of Muslims in states with poor infrastructure (Assam, Bihar, Jharkand, UP. WB) implies that a large portion of the community without access to basic facilities.
30 ACCESS TO SOCIAL AND PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE In both, Urban and rural areas, the proportion of Muslim households living in Pakka houses is lower than the total population.Over all, the access of Muslims to toilets is low but better than that of both SC/ST and OBCs.
31 ACCESS TO SOCIAL AND PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE Compared to the Muslim majority areas, the areas with low Muslims concentration, had better roads, sewage and drainage and water facilities.About a third of small villages with high concentration of Muslims do not have any educational institution.About 40% of large villages with Muslim concentration do not have any medical facility.
32 POVERTY, CONSUMPTION AND STANDARD OF LIVING A substantially larger proportion of the Muslim households in Urban areas are in the less than Rs 500 bracket.Inequality is higher in Urban areas than in the rural areas.Incidence of poverty is found to be highest amongst Muslims. SC/ ST occupy next position.Economic conditions of Muslims in Urban areas did not improve as those of SC/ST
33 GOVERNMENT EMPLOYMENT AND PROGAMS In a pluralistic society, a reasonable representation of various communities in government sector employment is necessary to enhance participatory governance.Presence of Muslims: I.A.S. 3%, IFS 1.8%, IPS 4% [Data on P.105]
34 GOVERNMENT EMPLOYMENT AND PROGAMS Muslims constituted 4.9 % of candidates who appeared in the written examination of Civil Services in the year 2003 and 2004There is no diversion between all candidates and Muslim candidates in percentages of those recommended for interviews and appointments.
35 GOVERNMENT EMPLOYMENT AND PROGAMS Share of Muslims in employment in various departments is abysmally low at all levels.Muslims have a representation of only 4.5% in Indian Railways. Almost all (98.79%) of them are at lower levels.Share of Muslims in Security Jobs is around 4%.
36 GOVERNMENT EMPLOYMENT AND PROGAMS In no State does the representation of Muslims in the government departments match their population share.Muslim Share in Education Department 6.5%, in Home Department 7.3%. Over all share of Muslims as police constables is only 6%
37 GOVERNMENT EMPLOYMENT AND PROGAMS Muslim Shares:Health Departments %Transport Department 6.5%Muslim representation in Judiciary: A source of concernShare of Muslims in recent recruitments by State Public Service Commission 2.1%The share of Muslims as beneficiaries in government programs in U.P. ranges between 3-14 % which is far less than their share in the numberof poor in the State 24%
38 MUSLIM OBC and Affirmative Action On the question of backward classes among non-Hindus, the court held that they should be identified on the basis of their traditional occupations.The Census of India 1901 had identified 133 Muslim social groups reflecting social stratification amongst Indian Muslims.
39 MUSLIM OBC and Affirmative Action Muslim OBC come from the non-ashraf category.The conference on Muslim OBC agreed that Muslims are a differentiated group and policy initiatives must reflect it.The Mandal commission declared 82 groups among Muslims as part of the OBC.
40 MUSLIM OBC and Affirmative Action Kerala and Karnataka extended reservation to their entire Muslim populationHavanur Commission, 1972 recommended a separate category reservation for minorities – 6%In Kerala, a separate Muslim share was fixed at 10% later raised to 12%.
41 MUSLIM OBC and Affirmative Action Tamil Nadu Government has done away with reservation on ground of religion, yet nearly 95% of the Muslims have been in included in the fold of Backward classes.Present situation of Reservation for Muslims [ See Table 10.1 p. 198]
42 MUSLIM OBC and Affirmative Action There are many OBC groups irrespective of their religion that are present in the state list but missing in the central list.The highest proportion of Muslims declared as ST is found in Lakshadweep where Muslim constitute entire ST Population [99.74%]
43 MUSLIM OBC and Affirmative Action Unemployment rates were the highest among Muslim OBCs as compared to the other two SRGs within OBC category.Within the formal sector, the share of Muslim OBC in the government /PSU jobs was much lower than those of Hindu OBC and Muslim-Gen categories.
44 MUSLIM OBC and Affirmative Action The bulk of women in all SRG work in their own dwellings. However, the proportion of Muslim OBC Women working within their dwellings is much higher.Out of every 100 workers, about 11 are Hindu OBC, only three are Muslim-general and one is Muslim OBC.
45 MUSLIM OBC and Affirmative Action The abysmally low representation of Muslim OBC suggests that benefits of entitlements mean for backward classes did not reach them.The conditions of Muslim –G are also lower than the Hindu OBC who have the benefit of reservation.
46 Leveraging Community Initiatives: Waqf Encroachment by the State who is the custodian of the Waqf interests is common across the country.The management of the Waqf board is unsatisfactory due to inadequate empowerment of State Waqf Boards and Central Waqf Council.New institutional support is recommended.Non implementation of Recommendations
47 Leveraging Community Initiatives: Waqf Case Study of Delhi:A number of properties acquired without compensation.Delhi Waqf Board has effectively been deprived of the use of its valuable properties.Legislative, Administrative and Judicial reforms required.
48 Looking Ahead: Recommendations While there is considerable variation in the conditions of Muslims across states the community exhibits deficits and deprivation in practically all dimensions of development.Mechanism to ensure equity and equality of opportunity to bring about inclusion should be such that diversity is achieved and at the same time, the perception of discrimination is eliminated.
49 Looking Ahead: Recommendations National Data Bank to restore socio economic data on SRGAssessment and Monitoring AuthorityStrengthen the Legal basis to remove discrimination.Equal Opportunity Commission to look into grievances.Elimination of anomalies with respect to reserved constituencies.
50 Looking Ahead: Recommendations Continuous Revision and Monitoring of text books.UGC may directed to link the disbursement of its funds to diversity of population.Alternate admission criteria for the ‘Most Backward’ in all CRG 60% weight to merit and 40% to backwardness (13% to income, 13% backward district, 14% to backward classes).Hostel facilities at reasonable cost to minorities.
51 Looking Ahead: Recommendations Teachers training to be made compulsoryState is required to run Urdu Medium Schools.Workout mechanism whereby Madarsahs could be linked with higher secondary boards.Recognition of Madarsah degrees for competitive exams.Promoting and enhancing access to Muslims in priority sectors.Policy initiatives required.
52 WHERE DO WE GO FROM HERE? Reservation Special programs and affirmative actionSpecial Urdu Medium Schools in Muslim dominated areasDiversity Index, Special admission formula, Linking grants to diversity index.Equal Opportunity CommissionSpecial community action has to be based on the Correct understanding of the situation and underlying social dynamics.
53 IMPORTANT MISSING FACTORS mind set …Communal identities and communal attitudesCommunal rioting and Security ConcernsHistorical factors:Partition and its aftermathZamindari Abolition
54 FRAMEWORK OF CUMULATIVE CAUSATION Fear PsychosisMajority aggressive- MinorityNess ConsciousnessMinority Separatism
55 A SUGGESTED STRATEGY Protection of Identity Pursuit of Excellence Self help and Cooperative effortsEnlightened Leadership
56 PROTECTION OF IDENTITY Articles 25 and 26 of the constitution guarantee preservation of Minority Character.Protection of Muslim identityInculcation of Islamic valuesWho is better in speech than the one who calls to God, works in righteousness and says, “ I am the one of those who bow in Islam (41:33)Hikmah (Farasat al Momin) : Cooperation and not confrontation.
57 PURSUIT OF EXCELLENCEPursuit of Excellence can break the vicious circle though it may be a tall order.It has to pervade all walks of life.A minority can not afford to be mediocre.Pursuit of Excellence has to be inculcated as a value from the very childhood.Excellence is the result of hard work and positive frame of mind.
58 SELF HELP AND COOPERATIVE EFFORTS Verily never will God change the condition of a people until they change it themselves [ 13:11]Help ye one another in righteousness and piety but help ye not another in sin and rancor. [ 5:2].The social life of Muslims in India could be transformed through self help and cooperation.Muslim NGOs could also be helpful in this context.
59 ENLIGHTENED LEADERSHIP Reconstruction requires sustained effort, persistence, hard work and foresight.Vision for futureMicro approach.Abstaining from narrow and Parochial political gains.Spread of success story and change of mind set.
60 THANK YOUIn the End, you are invited to praise Thy Lord, the Sustainer of the worlds.