(1) Circuit switching I A dedicated communication path between two stations. – That path is a connected sequence of links. – On each physical link, a channel is dedicated to the connection. – Example: Telephone system. Three phases: – Circuit establishment. – Data transfer – Circuit disconnection
Circuit switching II Circuit switching can be rather inefficient. –Channel capacity is dedicated. There is a delay prior to data transfer for call establishment. Data are transmitted at a fixed data rate with no delay
(2) Message switching I If a station wishes to send a message. – It appends a destination address to the message. – The message is then passed through the network from node to node. – At each node, the entire message is received, stored briefly, and then transmitted to the next node.
Message switching II A message-switching node is typically a general-purpose microcomputer, with sufficient storage to buffer message as they come in. Delay: – The time required to receive all bits of the message + A queuing delay waiting for an opportunity to retransmit to the next node. Store-and-forward message system.
MS: Advantages Greater line efficiency Availability of both ends is not required. When traffic is heavy, messages are still accepted. Multicast is easy. Message priorities Error control and recovery procedures can be built into the network. Speed and code conversion. Messages sent to inoperative terminals may be intercepted and either stored or rerouted to other terminals.
MS: Disadvantage It is not suited to real-time or interactive traffic. The delay is relative long and has relatively high variance. It cannot be used for voice connections. It is not suited to interactive terminal-host connections.
(3) Packet switching Each message to be transmitted through the network is firstly divided into a number of smaller message unit known as packet. Datagram approach Virtual Circuit
Datagram approach Each packet is treated independently. Each packet contains addressing information. The node make a routing decision for each packet. Advantages: – The call setup phase is avoided. – More primitive, flexible, and reliable
Virtual circuit approach A logical connection is established before any packets are sent. A route between stations is set up prior to data transfer.
Virtual circuit approach Advantages: – Be good for long exchange. – Relieve the stations of unnecessary communication processing functions. Services: – Sequencing,Error control,Flow control
Packet Switch Three types of delay: –Propagation delay –Transmission time –Node delay
Packet Switch Performance factors: –Number of stations. –Number and arrangement of nodes. –Total load on system. –Length of typical exchange. –Processing speed of the nodes. –Packet size
Summary I For interactive traffic, message switching is not appropriate. For light and/or intermittent loads, circuit switching is the most cost effective ( Public Telephone System ) For very heavy and sustained loads between two stations, a leased circuit-switched line is the most cost effective.
Summary II For a moderate to heavy load, packet switching is to be preferred. Datagram packet switching is good for short message and for flexibility. Virtual circuit packet switching is good for long exchange and relieving stations of processing burden.
A comparison of circuit switched and packet-switched networks.
(4) Multiplexing FDM ( Frequency Division Multiplexing ) TDM ( Time Division Multiplexing )