Presentation on theme: "Research and Diversity"— Presentation transcript:
1 Research and Diversity Why do research?Psychology is an empirical science which emphasizes or is based on observation & experiment.
2 The Scientific Method Theory Hypothesis Operational Definition Principle of FalsifiabilitySubjectsSelection FactorReplication
3 TheoryAn organized system of assumptions and principles that purports to explain a specified set of phenomena and their interrelationships.
4 HypothesisA statement that attempts to predict or to account for a set of phenomena; scientific hypotheses specify relationships among events or variables and are empirically tested.
5 Operational Definition A precise definition of a term in a hypothesis, which specifies the operations for observing and measuring the process or phenomenon being measured.
6 Principle of Falsifiability The principle that a scientific theory must make predictions that are specific enough to expose the theory to the possibility of disconfirmation; that is, the theory must predict not only what will happen, but also what will not happen.
7 Other Concepts Subjects Participants in a scientific study Replication The ability to repeat, reproduce or copy a studySelection FactorThe bias source that may occur when subjects are allowed to determine for themselves whether or not they will receive a treatment condition in a scientific study.
8 Samples & Populations: Representing Human Diversity Sample a segment of the populationPopulation refers to a complete group of organisms or eventsInfer is to draw a conclusionGeneralization extend from the particular to the generalRandom Sample each member of a population has an equal chance of being selected to participateStratified Samples identified subgroups in the population are represented proportionately in the sampleVolunteer Bias people who offer to participate in research studies differ
9 Methods of Observation The Case-Study MethodThe Survey MethodThe Testing MethodThe Naturalistic-Observation MethodThe Laboratory-Observation MethodThe Correlational MethodThe Experimental Method
10 The Case-Study MethodA carefully drawn biography that may be obtained through interviews, questionnaires, and psychological tests
11 The Survey MethodA method of scientific investigation in which a large sample of people is questioned about their attitudes or behavior
12 The Testing MethodPsychologists use psychological tests like intelligence, aptitude, and personality, to measure various traits and characteristics among a population
13 TestingStandardize: To develop uniform procedures for giving and scoring a test.Norms: Established standards of performance.Reliability: Consistency of scores derived from a test.Validity: The ability of a test to measure what it was designed to measure.
14 ObservationsNaturalistic- Observation A scientific method in which organisms are observed in their natural environmentsLaboratory-Observation A method where a place is found in which theories, techniques, and methods are tested and demonstrated
15 The Correlational Method A scientific method that studies the relationships between variablesCorrelation coefficient is a number between to that expresses the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables
16 Types of CorrelationsPositive correlation: Increases in one variable are associated with increases in the other; decreases are likewise associatedNegative correlation: Increases in one variable are associated with decreases in the other
17 The Experiment: Hunting for Causes Experimental VariablesExperimental and Control ConditionsExperimenter EffectsAdvantages and Limitations of Experiments
18 Experimental Variables Independent Variable: A variable that an experimenter manipulates.Dependent Variable: A variable than an experimenter predicts will be affected by manipulations of the independent variable.
19 Experimental MethodTreatment refers to a condition received by participants so that its effects may be observedExperimental subjects receive the treatmentControl subjects do not receive the experimental treatment but for whom all other conditions are comparable to those of experimental subjects
20 Experimental Method Cont. Placebo refers to a bogus treatment that has the appearance of being genuineBlind refers to unawareness as to whether or not one has received a treatmentDouble-blind refers to a study where neither the subjects nor the persons measuring results know who has received the treatment
21 Advantages and Limitations of Experiments Experiments allow conclusions about cause-effect relationships.Participants in experiments are not always representative of larger population.Much psychology research is carried out using colleges students as participants.Field Research: Descriptive or experimental research conducted in a natural setting outside the laboratory.
22 Different Research Methods Cross-Sectional Study: Subjects of different ages are compared at a given time.Longitudinal Study: Subjects are followed and periodically reassessed over a period of time.
23 From the Laboratory to the Real World Choosing the Best ExplanationSometimes there are competing explanations for the same eventsJudging the Result’s ImportanceStatistical significance does not prove that a result is important, only that it is reliableMeta-analysis combines and analyzes data from many studies
24 Unique Problems in Cross-Cultural Research Obtaining a representative sampleMeasurement leading to imposed etic (Berry, 1969)Equivalence in behavioral definition & research instruments (Lonner, 1979)
25 Factors Influencing Representative Samples Subject availabilityWillingness to participateGeographic IsolationUnavailability
26 MeasurementThe behavioral definition and measurement techniques of the researcher’s home culture may not transfer easily to another culture thereby leading to an imposed etic (Berry, 1969)
27 EquivalenceFunctional Equivalence– whether behavioral phenomenon serves the same purpose or intentConceptual Equivalence– meanings associated with similar stimulus across different culturesMetric Equivalence– assumes numeric scales measure a concept equally (Problem e.g., I.Q.)
28 Linguistic/Translation Equivalence Researcher’s understanding of subject’s response & their understanding of researcher’s questionsCulturally idiographic terms– words or terms unique to the cultureCulturally isomorphic terms– words or terms in both cultures with different meaningsE.g., out-of-sight, out-of-mind; view/intellect
29 Possible Solutions Use back translation E.g., Paul’s Social Skills ScaleUse an emic approach with observation and collaboration from members of the other groupE.g., AIDS educationS.E. Asian New Year Festival
30 Advantages of Cross-Cultural Research Determine whether a variable is etic or emicOpportunities to assess the relative contribution of culture to behaviorIncreased range of concepts being studiedOpportunity to unconfound variables where they don’t occur together in different cultures e.g., Oedipal Complex in Trobriand Islands (Malinowski, 1927)Increased sensitivity to contextContribute to the understanding of potential cognitive differences between cultures e.g., language & thought
31 Indigenous Approach to Research An emic approach whose starting points are concerns within a cultureIf the understanding of the emic analysis is appropriate, it may be compared to other cultures
32 Starting Points for Indigenous Research Researchers living in other countries note what is interesting or strikingResearchers ask colleagues from other cultures to note what is interesting or striking about the researcher’s cultureNote what current explanatory frameworks miss or what behaviors are de-emphasized in journals alreadyConsider behavior concepts and practices all cultures must deal with e.g., production & care of children