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European Contact Group in the Czech Republic Gender and migration Eva Kavková 26.4.2010
Contents EKS and its activities Gender aspects of integration How does migration influence gender roles Labour migration Gender segmentation of the labour market Economic inequalities Barriers in the labour market Qualification Family roles Conclusion
EKS activities Promoting equal opportunities between women and men Combating racism and discrimination Changing gender stereotypes
EKS activities Workshops, seminars, training Researches Self-support grassroots groups Publications and campaigns Networking and lobbying
Gender aspects of integration Different strategies of women and men & different obstacles –Access to labour market, position in the labour market –Possibilities for education and training –Information and knowing the reality –Access to sources of support
How does migration influence gender roles How does migration influence gender roles and relations? –Consolidation of traditional roles and inequalities –Changing gender roles Reasons for a change –Influence of a sociocultural environment –Economic pressure Impacts of role changes in a migrant family –Equality, equal opportunities –Conflicts
How does migration influence gender roles Men Higher level of unemployment, difficult role of a family breadwinner Qualification and experience is not taken into account They are often socially excluded from the major society
How does migration influence gender roles Women Greater opportunities for work Works segregation: women are working as cleaners, cooks, babysitters, nurses, housemaids, etc. Their primary role still is a wife and a mother
Labour migration Migrants from third countries mostly come from former Soviet Union, Vietnam and Mongolia. In comparison with migrants form other EU countries (there is an exception for Romanians and Bulgarians) they do not have same conditions, opportunities and same rights They occupy less qualified positions, have time- limited and insecure work contracts and very low wages Agencies and other mediators play a crucial role, as well as informal networks in each community Easiest way is to be self-employed (though it is against the employment law)
Labour migration There are certain jobs which are interlinked with country of origin of a particular migrant worker – a race-defined hierarchy Some migrants are qualified for certain jobs no according to their education and practice but according to their accent There are two groups of immigrants / the good ones form the West and the bad ones from the East – so they are treated both by public and employers
Gender segmentation of the labour market There is a clear gender segmentation of the labour market Building and construction – most employees are men, women do cleaning jobs Agriculture – depends on physical demands Services – typical feminine sector, if there are any men, they occupy higher posts (e.g. they are the ones who coordinate cleaning jobs)
Gender segmentation of the labour market Labour market segregation is connected both with physical demandingness and traditional gender stereotypes Typical jobs for men are in the field of construction and forestry Typical jobs for women are in textile industry, services and care (both paid and unpaid at home) Work in restaurants, fast foods and stalls is equally distributed and it is typical especially for the Vietnamese community
Economic inequalities There is a similar inequality between wages of migrant women and man Women are not equally involved in the family business – often they do not have access to own cash and they are economically dependent on their partners Having a paid jobs means a greater freedom – women who do have their own assets do not often return back home
Barriers in the labour market Cultural barriers (women’s role in certain societies is only connected with housekeeping) Social and economic barriers (single mothers do not have time to follow language course)
Qualification It is closely interlinked with language knowledge Only 75% of women use Czech in their workplace compared to 86% of men) Women are communicating less with Czech institutions But they do communicate with schools and kindergartens. They are integrating into the society via their children
Family roles Women care more for keeping own cultural and religious traditions, but they also play a key role in integration of their own children Men provide economic means for the family, they are in constant touch with the major society (institution, foreign police, work) The first generation is usually sticking to traditional gender roles (in 75% of families women are the only ones to care for household) Different situation in refugee families
Conclusions Women are not just passive followers of men They are less informed about situation in their new country and therefore more vulnerable They are the preservers of cultural and religious traditions, but also key to integration for the second generation They face greater discrimination in the labour market (lower wages, unqualified jobs, unpaid work, etc.) They work is often hidden
Thank you for your attention! European Contact Group in the Czech Republic Žitná 45 CZ - 110 00 Prague 1 T/F: +420 2222 11 799 www.ekscr.cz
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