2 Theoretical Background (1) 1. Challenge of Audio-Lingua Method:Ss are unable to transfer habits formed in the classroom to communicate outside of it.2. Noam Chomsky:Language must not be considered a product of habit formation, but rule formation.Language acquisition must be a procedure of people using their own thinking process, or cognition, to discover the rules of the language they are acquiring.
3 Theoretical Background (2) Cognitive Approach 認知教學法Rather than responding to stimuli, Ss areresponsible for their learning,engaged in formulating hypotheses to discover the rules of target language (grammar),
4 Background (1)American educator, Galeb Gattegno created in the 70s, 1983.Basic principle: Teaching should be subordinated to learning.Teaching is to serve learning process rather than to dominate it.Learners are actively searching for rules of the target language regarding to the learner in the cognitive approach.
5 Background (2)errors signs that Ss were actively testing their hypotheses.No English teaching methods are directly from cognitive approach, but a number of innovative methods emerged.The silent way is one of them.
6 Background (3)Learning is a process which we initiate by ourselves by mobilizing our inner resources. (perception, awareness, cognition, imagination, intuition, creativity..)In the process of learning, we integrate into ourselves whatever ‘new’ that we create, and use it as a stepping stone for further learning.
7 Teaching (1)Gattegno “The teacher works with the students; the students work on the language.”In a period of class, teacher should not talk more than 10%.Have Ss talk.Ss should use language for self-expression.Ss develop their inner criteria for correctness.
8 Teaching (2) Only the learners can do the learning. Ss is to make use of what they know.Learning is Ss’ personal responsibility.Teacher should respect the autonomy of the learners in language.Teaching involves only one structure at a time.
9 Teaching (3)With minimal spoken cues, Ss are guided to produce the structure.Ss practice without repetition.Ss gain autonomy in the language by exploring it.T sets up situation to ‘force awareness’ through the use of nonverbal gestures and the tools which are available.