Qualitative Methods 9810009m Lisa 9810010m Angela.
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Qualitative Methods 9810009m Lisa 9810010m Angela
Outline Basis for selection of qualitative methods Strategies for Qualitative Research General Methodological Guidelines Critically Analyzing Qualitative Research
Key words associated with qualitative methods include: Complexity, contextual, exploration, discovery, inductive logic.
Main Purpose of doing Qualitative Research: Provide in-depth descriptions to interpret something by using case study, personal experiences, interview, or observation.
Basis for selection of qualitative methods Three possible reasons for choosing qualitative methods are explored as follows: A. the researcher’s view of the world B. the nature of the research question C. practical reasons associated with the nature of qualitative methods
a. The researcher’s view of the world Constructivist view Transformative views
b. The nature of the research question Patton(2002) identifies the following types of research questions for which qualitative methods would be appropriate:
1. the focus of the research is on the process, implementation,or development of a program or its participants.
2.The program emphasizes individualized outcomes.
3.Detailed and in-depth information is needed about certain clients or programs.
4.the focus is on diversity among, idiosyncrasies of, and unique qualities exhibited by individuals.
5.the intent is to understand the program theory.
Strategies for Qualitative Research Seven strategies
. Strategies for Qualitative Research: many different types of qualitative research are practiced in educational and psychological research. In this chapter we mention seven strategies as follows.
Strategies for Qualitative Research 1. Ethnographic research: Describe and analyze practices and beliefs of cultures and communities by interacting with people in their everyday lives 2. Case study: Detailed study of one individual (of a group) through observation
3. Phenomenological research: Seek the individual’s perceptions and meaning of a phenomenon or experience; “what is the meaning of the experience of this phenomenon for this person or group of people?”
4. Grounded theory: Develop a theory after gathering and analyzing the data
5. Participatory research: Co-research the issue cooperatively
Participatory research Cooperative inquiry Participatory action research
Clinical Research Understand a problem within a clinical context. Focus on aspect of medical Belong to case study
Focus groups Observe the interaction within the group (e.g., group interviews) Advantage : have more chance to get the information. Disadvantage : the former respondent may influenced the neutral participants’ idea.
General Methodological Guidelines The researcher is the instrument Speaking for the other Focus on an area of inquiry Explore research sites Gaining permission Negotiating entry Entering the field Role of the researcher
The researcher is the instrument what questions to ask in what order what to observe what to write down key person to collect and interpret data
Speaking for the other Retell someone’s story or experiences in a new way (re-writing) Image yourself as the participants Tell the story in your own words
Focus on an area of inquiry Explore the topic based on literature review and research questions (tentative) According the literature review let you have a picture in mind.
Explore research sites Stay the place (location) you do the study for a longer time to collect the information about its background, etc that related your research.
Gaining permission Try to get permission (agreements) from the “gatekeepers” (those with power and authority) e.g. parents, principal, etc
Negotiating entry How to get the true information with protection of human beings and their organization How to protect your participants when your research is sensitive. (e.g. homosexual, AIDS, etc)
Entering the field Make plans to enter the field in the least disruptive manner Ex: when you have to go to elementary school, you can make a promise that you won’t interfere the class and give the detail about your plan to the school.
Role of the researcher Unbiased, objective, discover multiple views of the participants; more interactive 1. Supervisor (with authority) 2. Leader (e.g., scout leaders) 3. Friend (with respect)
Critically Analyzing Qualitative Research When you get the information you want, how should you analyze the data? – Credibility – Transferability – Dependability – Confirmability – Authenticity – Transformative Paradigm Criteria
Credibility Internal validity (a correspondence between how the researcher observes and participants express viewpoints) 1. Prolonged and substantial engagement : give enough time for yourself to stay in the environment.
2. Persistent observation : Sufficient observation until identifying clear issues/picture e.g. observe your participants’ facial expression, why they give the answer, and so on. 3. Peer debreifing : Discuss with the disinterested peers for better research ideas e.g. your research is too broad or your idea is unclear, etc
4. Negative case analysis : If the finding doesn’t fit the hypothesis, seek more information and analyze the negative case. negative case = minority’s idea 5. Progressive subjectivity : Be open-minded and keep changing if necessary
6. Member checks : if your result of quantitative and qualitative have some inconsistency, you should discuss with other (teachers or classmates). 7. Triangulation : Check information from different sources or methods to find consistency
Transferability Thick description (provide sufficient details such as time, place, context) and multiple cases for external validity (generalize the results to other similar situation) To analyze your result can be applied in other situation or not.
Dependability Reliability (maintain the same result without change no matter tested how many times) Confirmability Objectivity (provide evidences by synthesizing data instead of researcher’s imagination) without your subjective idea.
Authenticity Present a balanced view of all values and beliefs 1. Fairness : Display different views (pros and cons) 2. Ontological authenticity : Show individual’s real experiences 3. Catalytic authenticity : Get evidences of participants’ views by the “inquiry” process
Transformative Paradigm Criteria Positionality or standpoint epistemology : 1. The research result can not contain all universal truth because a lot of factors may influence the result; 2. should avoid showing the position or standpoint of the author ( e.g. I, You)
Community : 1. Know the research site well to link the research results to positive action within that community 2. To know more about you participants’ group, location, etc, and the result you get will more correct and objective.
Attention to voice : Speak for the minority The minority’s idea may be important, too Critical reflexivity : Be sensitive to understand the psychological state of participants To know more what your participants think in their mind
Reciprocity : Develop trust with participants Sharing the perquisites of privilege : Share research results