# Introduction LING 572 Fei Xia Week 1: 1/3/06. Outline Course overview Problems and methods Mathematical foundation –Probability theory –Information theory.

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Introduction LING 572 Fei Xia Week 1: 1/3/06

Outline Course overview Problems and methods Mathematical foundation –Probability theory –Information theory

Course overview

Course objective Focus on statistical methods that produce state- of-the-art results Questions: for each algorithm –How the algorithm works: input, output, steps –What kind of tasks an algorithm can be applied to? –How much data is needed? Labeled data Unlabeled data

General info Course website: –Syllabus (incl. slides and papers): updated every week. –Message board –ESubmit Office hour: W: 3-5pm. Prerequisites: –Ling570 and Ling571. –Programming: C, C++, or Java, Perl is a plus. –Introduction to probability and statistics

Expectations Reading: –Papers are online: who don’t have access to printers? –Reference book: Manning & Schutze (MS) –Finish reading before class. Bring your questions to class. Grade: –Homework (3): 30% –Project (6 parts): 60% –Class participation: 10% –No quizzes, exams

Assignments Hw1: FSA and HMM Hw2: DT, DL, and TBL. Hw3: Boosting  No coding  Bring the finished assignments to class.

Project P1: Method 1 (Baseline): Trigram P2: Method 2: TBL P3: Method 3: MaxEnt P4: Method 4: choose one of four tasks. P5: Presentation P6: Final report Methods 1-3 are supervised methods. Method 4: bagging, boosting, semi-supervised learning, or system combination. P1 is an individual task, P2-P6 are group tasks. A group should have no more than three people.  Use ESubmit  Need to use others’ code and write your own code.

Summary of Ling570 Overview: corpora, evaluation Tokenization Morphological analysis POS tagging Shallow parsing N-grams and smoothing WSD NE tagging HMM

Summary of Ling571 Parsing Semantics Discourse Dialogue Natural language generation (NLG) Machine translation (MT)

570/571 vs. 572 572 focuses more on statistical approaches. 570/571 are organized by tasks; 572 is organized by learning methods. I assume that you know –The basics of each task: POS tagging, parsing, … –The basic concepts: PCFG, entropy, … –Some learning methods: HMM, FSA, …

An example 570/571: –POS tagging: HMM –Parsing: PCFG –MT: Model 1-4 training 572: –HMM: forward-backward algorithm –PCFG: inside-outside algorithm –MT: EM algorithm  All special cases of EM algorithm, one method of unsupervised learning.

Course layout Supervised methods –Decision tree –Decision list –Transformation-based learning (TBL) –Bagging –Boosting –Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt)

Course layout (cont) Semi-supervised methods –Self-training –Co-training Unsupervised methods –EM algorithm Forward-backward algorithm Inside-outside algorithm EM for PM models

Outline Course overview Problems and methods Mathematical foundation –Probability theory –Information theory

Problems and methods

Types of ML problems Classification problem Estimation problem Clustering Discovery …  A learning method can be applied to one or more types of ML problems.  We will focus on the classification problem.

Classification problem Given a set of classes and data x, decide which class x belongs to. Labeled data: –(x i, y i ) is a set of labeled data. –x i is a list of attribute values. –y i is a member of a pre-defined set of classes.

Examples of classification problem Disambiguation: –Document classification –POS tagging –WSD –PP attachment given a set of other phrases Segmentation: –Tokenization / Word segmentation –NP Chunking

Learning methods Modeling: represent the problem as a formula and decompose the formula into a function of parameters Training stage: estimate the parameters Test (decoding) stage: find the answer given the parameters

Modeling Joint vs. conditional models: –P(data, model) –P(model | data) –P(data | model) Decomposition: –Which variable conditions on which variable? –What independent assumptions?

An example of different modeling

Training Objective functions: –Maximize likelihood: –Minimize error rate –Maximum entropy –…. Supervised, semi-supervised, unsupervised: –Ex: Maximize likelihood Supervised: simple counting Unsupervised: EM

Decoding DP algorithm –CYK for PCFG –Viterbi for HMM –…–… Pruning: –TopN: keep topN hyps at each node. –Beam: keep hyps whose weights >= beam * max_weight –Threshold: keep hyps whose weights >= threshold –…–…

Outline Course overview Problems and methods Mathematical foundation –Probability theory –Information theory

Probability Theory

Probability theory Sample space, event, event space Random variable and random vector Conditional probability, joint probability, marginal probability (prior)

Sample space, event, event space Sample space (Ω): a collection of basic outcomes. –Ex: toss a coin twice: {HH, HT, TH, TT} Event: an event is a subset of Ω. –Ex: {HT, TH} Event space (2 Ω ): the set of all possible events.

Random variable The outcome of an experiment need not be a number. We often want to represent outcomes as numbers. A random variable is a function that associates a unique numerical value with every outcome of an experiment. Random variable is a function X: Ω  R. Ex: toss a coin once: X(H)=1, X(T)=0

Two types of random variable Discrete random variable: X takes on only a countable number of distinct values. –Ex: Toss a coin 10 times. X is the number of tails that are noted. Continuous random variable: X takes on uncountable number of possible values. –Ex: X is the lifetime (in hours) of a light bulb.

Probability function The probability function of a discrete variable X is a function which gives the probability p(x i ) that the random variable equals x i : a.k.a. p(x i ) = p(X=x i ).

Random vector Random vector is a finite-dimensional vector of random variables: X=[X 1,…,X k ]. P(x) = P(x 1,x 2,…,x n )=P(X 1 =x 1,…., X n =x n ) Ex: P(w 1, …, w n, t 1, …, t n )

Three types of probability Joint prob: P(x,y)= prob of x and y happening together Conditional prob: P(x|y) = prob of x given a specific value of y Marginal prob: P(x) = prob of x for all possible values of y

Common equations

More general cases

Information Theory

Information theory It is the use of probability theory to quantify and measure “information”. Basic concepts: –Entropy –Joint entropy and conditional entropy –Cross entropy and relative entropy –Mutual information and perplexity

Entropy Entropy is a measure of the uncertainty associated with a distribution. The lower bound on the number of bits it takes to transmit messages. An example: –Display the results of horse races. –Goal: minimize the number of bits to encode the results.

An example Uniform distribution: p i =1/8. Non-uniform distribution: (1/2,1/4,1/8, 1/16, 1/64, 1/64, 1/64, 1/64) (0, 10, 110, 1110, 111100, 111101, 111110, 111111)

Entropy of a language The entropy of a language L: If we make certain assumptions that the language is “nice”, then the cross entropy can be calculated as:

Joint and conditional entropy Joint entropy: Conditional entropy:

Cross Entropy Entropy: Cross Entropy: Cross entropy is a distance measure between p(x) and q(x): p(x) is the true probability; q(x) is our estimate of p(x).

Cross entropy of a language The cross entropy of a language L: If we make certain assumptions that the language is “nice”, then the cross entropy can be calculated as:

Relative Entropy Also called Kullback-Leibler distance: Another distance measure between prob functions p and q. KL distance is asymmetric (not a true distance):

Relative entropy is non-negative

Mutual information It measures how much is in common between X and Y: I(X;Y)=KL(p(x,y)||p(x)p(y))

Perplexity Perplexity is 2 H. Perplexity is the weighted average number of choices a random variable has to make.

Summary Course overview Problems and methods Mathematical foundation –Probability theory –Information theory  M&S Ch2

Next time FSA HMM: M&S Ch 9.1 and 9.2

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