Introduction to Health Care Lecture #1 NUR101 Fall 2009 K. Burger, MSEd, MSN, RN, CNE.
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Introduction to Health Care Lecture #1 NUR101 Fall 2009 K. Burger, MSEd, MSN, RN, CNE
Introduction to Health Care Concepts of Nursing The Nursing role Nursing described Theoretical Frameworks Nursing theorists – common themes Stress and Adaptation Nursing Process
Nursing An ART and SCIENCE Caring: nursing is caring for and about people Individualized: nursing is adapting to each persons needs Holistic: nursing views the ENTIRE person including physical, spiritual, social, psychological and economic needs
Nursing An ART and SCIENCE Interpersonal: nursing involves individuals, families, groups - each interrelated Reasoning: nursing is a science that requires critical thinking Comprehensive: nursing involves health promotion, disease prevention, health restoration and care of the dying
Concepts of Nursing Nursing Defined ANA (American Nurses Association) 2003 Nursing is the protection, promotion, and optimization of health and abilities, prevention of illness and injury, alleviation of suffering through the diagnosis and treatment of human response, and advocacy in the care of individuals, families, communities and populations
Concepts of Nursing Nursing Leaders Florence Nightingale- 1800’s …manipulation of the environment of the patient to assist him in his recovery… Virginia Henderson- 1960’s…. nursing practice as independent from the practice of medicine…viewed the patient as an individual needing help toward independence.
The Nursing Role Caregiver Communicator Teacher/Educator Leader/Manager Researcher Advocate
The Nursing Role Involves many facets of the health-care delivery system: preventive care primary care secondary care tertiary care restorative care continuing care
Nursing is a PROFESSION Characteristics of a PROFESSION Educational Requirements Code of Ethics Autonomy Professional Organization Theoretical Framework
Standards of Professional Performance Defined for the health profession by the: Pew Health Professions Commission 21 Competencies for the Twenty-first Century with emphasis on ethical responsibilities, evidence-based clinical competencies, primary and preventative care, community health advocacy, and continuing education.
Standards of Professional Performance Defined for the registered nurse by the American Nurses Association (ANA) in the areas of: Quality of practice Education Professional practice evaluation Collegiality Collaboration Ethics Research Resource utilization Leadership
Standards for Professional Performance Defined by the SCCC School of Nursing in its 17 Program Objectives and Progression of Core Components (see student handbook) Professional Behaviors Communication Assessment Clinical Decision Making Caring Interventions Teaching and Learning Collaboration Managing Care
Nursing Theory Theory helps provide knowledge to improve practice Theoretical knowledge provides nurses with increased power Theory provides autonomy Theory helps develop critical thinking
Common Nursing Theory Elements Human beings benefit from nursing care Human beings have inner capacity to improve health Understanding human beings will improve and facilitate nursing care People interact with each other Health is more then biological needs Improved health is goal of society Health has a positive value
Interdisciplinary Theories Maslow: hierarchy of basic human needs Erikson: psychosocial development Piaget: cognitive development Systems theory Health and Wellness theory Stress and Adaptation theory
Nursing Process ASSESSMENT NURSING DIAGNOSIS PLANNING IMPLEMENTATION EVALUATION
Health and Wellness Traditionally health and illness were viewed as two separate entities WHO (World Health Organization) defines health as “the state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity” Currently viewed as: Health-Illness Continuum
Health - Illness Continuum Measures a person’s perception of health Constantly changing state High level wellness at one end, normal health in the center and illness-death at the opposite end
Stress and Adaptation Stressors = disruptive forces Adaptations = reactions to stress and stressors Nursing acts to develop interventions to reduce or prevent stressors
Caring in Nursing Practice Caring is a “universal phenomenon” Caring is “at the heart of a nurse’s ability” to deliver respectful, therapeutic care. Caring behaviors include: -providing presence -using touch appropriately -listening attentively -knowing the client
Critical Thinking Exercise Lindsey is a senior nursing student assigned to care for Mrs. Lowe, a 62- year-old client being treated for lymphoma (cancer of the lymph nodes). Mrs. Lowe is to receive an injection for her pain. In what way can Lindsay show caring in the way she administers the injection to Mrs. Lowe?