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Planning and Organizing Instruction

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Presentation on theme: "Planning and Organizing Instruction"— Presentation transcript:

1 Planning and Organizing Instruction
Mercer Ch. 2

2 Activity Using large paper and markers, draw your ultimate classroom
Explain each area and their relevance to the function of the classroom

3 Arrangement of Students
All students should easily see and hear the teacher Teacher has easy access to all students Teacher sees all students Decide to put desks in clusters or rows Place difficult-to-teach or off-task students in the middle of the room near the front

4 Classroom Arrangement
Teacher draw a rough sketch of the floor plan Consider advantages for desk arrangements: vertical rows, group circles, and small clusters Location of predominant activities Number of students in the environment Storage area for equipment Need for special equipment for students with special needs

5 Managing the Physical Environment
Environmental Design Classroom Arrangement Complements to the Instructional Environment Interest Centers Bulletin Boards Environmental design: from one-room school at the turn of the century, to graded, self-contained classes. Later shift to open classroom were aesthetically pleasing with carpeted floors, nondistracting illumination, brightly colored walls and furnishings, and ample space to create. Today emphasis is on cooperative learning environments.

6 Environmental Design Considerations
Sense of community Personal territory Authentic motivation Classroom flexibility Environmental acknowledgment Flexible seating Work aesthetic Barrier-free

7 Complements to the Instructional Environment
Study Carrel Provide a quiet place to study Provide a comfortable place to read independently

8 Interest Centers Considerations
Characteristics of the user Objectives that the activities are designed to meet Interest value to the students Procedures and directions Materials or equipment needed

9 Bulletin Boards Most popular is to display students’ work
Can foster creativity by providing example topics or themes for student work

10 Large-Group Instruction
Advantages: time efficient Prepares students for the type of instruction primarily used in secondary education May help students with special needs make the transition to general education classes

11 Large-Group Instruction Cont.
Disadvantages: Difficult for teachers to deal with diverse abilities and skill levels Questions may go unanswered Distracted students may stay off task Students do not receive intensive instruction

12 Guidelines for Large-Group Instruction
Keep instruction short Use questions to involve students Use lecture-pause routine Active participation among lower achieving students Visual aids Lively pace Frequent change-ups Determine rules during presentation and discussions Use participation buddies to promote student involvement Lecture-pause, teacher lectures for 6-12 minutes, pause for 3 minutes to get students into groups to follow RAP procedure R – Read your notes or question A-Ask other students about your notes P-Put corrections or answers to questions in your notes

13 Small-Group Instruction
Advantages: Students participate more often Teachers provide more instruction, praise, and feedback Students can progress at their own pace Less boring Monitor student progress better ELL students are more comfortable Important for students with LD and EBD because they lack to skills to work independently

14 Small-Group Instruction Cont.
Disadvantages Students are required to do more seatwork More planning is involved Teachers must organize instructional variables Teachers must provide more instruction

15 Guidelines for Small-Group Instruction
Establish rules Make groups homogeneous Maintain flexible grouping Locate groups so teacher can see all groups Place students in semicircle Use motivational activities

16 Cooperative Learning Strategies
Peer tutoring Classwide Peer tutoring Group projects Jigsaw Student-team achievement divisions

17 Guidelines for Peer Tutoring
Determine goals for peer tutoring Practice and learn targeted skills Provide a review Develop appropriate social skills Enhance self-concepts Determine target skills or content Select materials Design procedures for tutee and tutor How to present the task How to provide feedback for correct and incorrect responses How to score responses

18 Guidelines for Peer Tutoring
Assign tutor-tutee pairs Across-class Pull-out Intraclass Train tutors and tutees Teach social skills Review skills Schedule sessions

19 Classwide Peer Tutoring
Three main features: Peers are used to supervise responding and practice A game format is used that includes points and competing teams to motivate students and maintain interest Weekly evaluation plan ensure gains in student progress

20 Classwide Peer Tutoring Format
Daily tutoring sessions of about 30 minutes Tutor-tutee pairs work together for a week After 10 minutes the pairs switch roles Two points are given for each correct response, one point is given for a corrected response Teacher moves around the room monitoring tutoring behavior – awards bonus points for good behavior End of the session, students add up the points and record on chart Friday the teacher conducts a more intensive assessment of the skills learned

21 Student-team achievement divisions
Heterogeneous group of 4 students are assigned to a team After teacher presents the lesson, the team works together to ensure mastery of the skills taught Students take individual quizzes without peer help. Quiz scores are compared to previous scores and points are awarded based on improvement

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