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Introduction to Socket Programming April 2010. What is a socket? An interface between application and network –The application creates a socket –The socket.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Socket Programming April 2010. What is a socket? An interface between application and network –The application creates a socket –The socket."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Socket Programming April 2010

2 What is a socket? An interface between application and network –The application creates a socket –The socket type dictates the style of communication connection-oriented vs. connectionless Once configured, the application can –pass data to the socket for network transmission –receive data from the socket (transmitted through the network by some other host)

3 Two essential types of sockets SOCK_STREAM –TCP sockets –reliable delivery –in-order guaranteed –connection-oriented SOCK_DGRAM –UDP sockets –unreliable delivery –no order guarantees –no notion of “ connection ” App socket 3 2 1 Dest. App socket 3 2 1 D1 D3 D2 We’ll look at this one

4 Client – high level view Create a socket Setup the server address Connect to the server Read/write data Shutdown connection

5 Some utility functions Byte Ordering: Host Byte Order to Network Byte Order: htons(), htonl() Network Byte Order to Host Byte Order: ntohs(), ntohl() IP Address format: Ascii dotted to Binary: inet_aton() Binary to Ascii dotted: inet_ntoa() Many others exist …… explore the man pages :D

6 Socket() – A Connection Endpoint This creates an endpoint for a network connection. int socket(int domain, int type, int protocol) domain = PF_INET (IPv4 communication) type = SOCK_STREAM (TCP), SOCK_DGRAM (UDP) protocol = 0 (for our discussion) Example : socket(PF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, 0); This will create a TCP socket. The call returns a socket descriptor on success and - 1 on an error.

7 int connect_ socket(char *hostname, int port) { int sock; struct sockaddr_in sin; struct hostent *host; sock = socket(AF_ INET, SOCK_ STREAM, 0); if (sock == -1) return sock; host = gethostbyname(hostname); if (host == NULL) { close( sock); return -1; } memset (& sin, 0, sizeof( sin)); sin. sin_ family = AF_ INET; sin. sin_ port = htons(port); sin. sin_ addr.s_ addr = *(unsigned long *) host -> h_ addr_ list[0]; if (connect(sock, (struct sockaddr *) &sin, sizeof(sin)) != 0) { close (sock); return -1; } return sock; } Resolve the host struct hostent *gethostbyname( const char *hostname); /*Return nonnull pointer if OK, NULL on error */ Setup the struct unit16_t htons(unit16_t host16bitvaule) /*Change the port number from host byte order to network byte order */ Connect connect(int socketfd, const struct sockaddr * servaddr, socket_t addrlen) /*Perform the TCP three way handshaking*/ Hostent structure struct hostent{ char * h_name/*official name of host*/ char ** h_aliases; /* pointer ot array of\ pointers to alias name*/ int h_addrtype /* host address type*/ int h_length/* length of address */ char ** h_addr_list/*prt to array of ptrs with \ IPv4 or IPv6 address*/ } Ipv4 socket address structure struct socketaddr_in{ uint8_t sin_len; /*length of the structure (16)*/ sa_falimily_t sin_family /* AF_INT*/ in_port_t sin_port /* 16 bit TCP or UDP port number*/ struct in_addr sin_addr/* 32 bit Ipv4 address */ char sin_zero(8)/* unused*/ } Make the socket Socket(int family, int type, int protocol); return nonnegative value for OK, -1 for error

8 Server – high level view Create a socket Bind the socket Listen for connections Accept new client connections Read/write to client connections Shutdown connection

9 Bind() – Attaching to an IP and Port A server process calls bind to attach itself to a specific port and IP address. int Bind(int sockfd, struct sockaddr *my_addr, socklen_t addrlen) sockfd = socket descriptor returned by socket() my_addr = pointer to a valid sockaddr_in structure cast as a sockaddr * pointer addrlen = length of the sockaddr_in structure Example : struct sockaddr_in my; my.sin_family = PF_INET; my.sin_port = htons(80); my.sin_addr.s_addr = INADDR_ANY; bzero(&my, 8) bind(sock, (struct sockaddr *)&my, sizeof(my));

10 Listen() – Wait for a connection The server process calls listen to tell the kernel to initialize a wait queue of connections for this socket. Int Listen(int sock, int backlog) sock = socket returned by socket() backlog = Maximum length of the pending connections queue Listen() returns -1 on error (otherwise 0). Example: Listen(sock, 10); This will allow a maximum of 10 connections to be in pending state.

11 Listening on a port (TCP) int make_ listen_ socket( int port) { struct sockaddr_ in sin; int sock; sock = socket( AF_ INET, SOCK_ STREAM, 0); if (sock < 0) return -1; memset(& sin, 0, sizeof( sin)); sin. sin_ family = AF_ INET; sin. sin_ addr. s_ addr = htonl( INADDR_ ANY); sin. sin_ port = htons( port); if (bind( sock, (struct sockaddr *) &sin, sizeof( sin)) < 0) return -1; if(listen(sock,10) < 0) return -1; return sock; } Make the socket Setup up the struct Bind bind(int sockfd, const struct sockaddr * myaddr, socklen_t addrlen); /* return 0 if OK, -1 on error assigns a local protocol adress to a socket*/

12 Accept() – A new connection ! Accept is called by a Server process to accept new connections from new clients trying to connect to the server. Int Accept(int socket, (struct sockaddr *)&client, socklen_t *client_len) socket = the socket in listen state client = will hold the new client’s information client_len = pointer to size of the client structure Example : struct sockaddr_in client; int len = sizeof(client); Accept(sock, (struct sockaddr *)&client, &len);

13 Accept() return value accept() returns a new socket descriptor (small positive integer) or -1 on error. After accept returns a new socket descriptor, I/O can be done using the read() and write() system calls. read() and write() operate a little differently on sockets (vs. file operation)!

14 Send / Recv – Finally Data !! Send(), Recv(), Read(), Write() etc calls are used to send and receive data. Int send(int sock, void *mesg, size_t len, int flags) Int recv(int sock, void *mesg, size_t len, int flags) sock = A connected socket mesg = Pointer to a buffer to send/receive data from/in. len = Size of the message buffer flags = 0 (for our purpose) The return value is the number of bytes actually sent/received. Example: char send_buffer[1024]; char recv_buffer[1024]; int sent_bytes; int recvd_bytes; sent_bytes = send(sock, send_buffer, 1024, 0); recvd_bytes = recv(sock, recv_buffer, 1024, 0);

15 socket() bind() listen() accept() read() write() read() close() Socket() connect() write() read() close() TCP Client TCP Server Well-known port blocks until connection from client process request Connection establishment Data(request) Data(reply) End-of-file notification

16 Dealing with blocking calls Many functions block –accept(), connect(), recv() For simple programs this is fine What about complex connection routines –Multiple connections –Simultaneous sends and receives –Simultaneously doing non-networking processing

17 Dealing with blocking (cont..) Options –Create multi-process or multi-threaded code –Turn off blocking feature (fcntl() system call) –Use the select() function What does select() do? –Input: a set of file descriptors –Output: info on the file-descriptors’ status –Therefore, can identify sockets that are “ready for use”: calls involving that socket will return immediately

18 select function call int status = select(int nfds, fd_set *readfds, fd_set *writefds, fd_set *exceptfds, struct timeval *Timeout); –Status: # of ready objects, -1 if error –nfds: 1 +largest file descriptor to check –readfds: list of descriptors to check if read-ready –writefds: list of descriptors to check if write-ready –exceptfds: list of descriptors to check if an exception is registered –Timeout: time after which select returns

19 Four parts of first project 0: Get build, configure and run the minet stack 1: HTTP Client 2: Connection-at-a-time HTTP Server 3: Simple select-based Multiple- connection-at-a-time server 4: Complex …. ( Extra Credit )

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