2 The Network Core mesh of interconnected routers the fundamental question: how is data transferred through net?circuit switching: dedicated circuit per call: telephone netpacket-switching: data sent thru net in discrete “chunks”
3 Network Core: Circuit Switching End-end resources reserved for “call”link bandwidth, switch capacitydedicated resources: no sharingcircuit-like (guaranteed) performancecall setup required
4 Network Core: Circuit Switching network resources (e.g., bandwidth) divided into “pieces”pieces allocated to callsresource piece idle if not used by owning call (no sharing)dividing link bandwidth into “pieces”frequency divisiontime division
5 Circuit Switching: FDM and TDM 4 usersExample:FDMfrequencytimeTDMfrequencytimeTwo simple multiple access control techniques.Each mobile’s share of the bandwidth is divided into portions for the uplink and the downlink. Also, possibly, out of band signaling.As we will see, used in AMPS, GSM, IS-54/136
6 Numerical exampleHow long does it take to send a file of 640,000 bits from host A to host B over a circuit-switched network?All links are MbpsEach link uses TDM with 24 slots/sec500 msec to establish end-to-end circuitLet’s work it out!
7 Network Core: Packet Switching each end-end data stream divided into packetsuser A, B packets share network resourceseach packet uses full link bandwidthresources used as neededresource contention:aggregate resource demand can exceed amount availablecongestion: packets queue, wait for link usestore and forward: packets move one hop at a timeNode receives complete packet before forwardingBandwidth division into “pieces”Dedicated allocationResource reservation
8 Packet Switching: Statistical Multiplexing 100 Mb/sEthernetCAstatistical multiplexing1.5 Mb/sBqueue of packetswaiting for outputlinkDESequence of A & B packets does not have fixed pattern, shared on demand statistical multiplexing.TDM: each host gets same slot in revolving TDM frame.
9 Packet-switching: store-and-forward LRRRTakes L/R seconds to transmit (push out) packet of L bits on to link or R bpsEntire packet must arrive at router before it can be transmitted on next link: store and forwarddelay = 3L/R (assuming zero propagation delay)Example:L = 7.5 MbitsR = 1.5 Mbpsdelay = 15 secmore on delay shortly …
10 Packet switching versus circuit switching Packet switching allows more users to use network!1 Mb/s linkeach user:100 kb/s when “active”active 10% of timecircuit-switching:10 userspacket switching:with 35 users, probability > 10 active less than .0004N users1 Mbps linkQ: how did we get value ?
11 Packet switching versus circuit switching Is packet switching a “slam dunk winner?”Great for bursty dataresource sharingsimpler, no call setupExcessive congestion: packet delay and lossprotocols needed for reliable data transfer, congestion controlQ: How to provide circuit-like behavior?bandwidth guarantees needed for audio/video appsstill an unsolved problem (chapter 7)Q: human analogies of reserved resources (circuit switching) versus on-demand allocation (packet-switching)?
13 Access networks and physical media Q: How to connect end systems to edge router?residential access netsinstitutional access networks (school, company)mobile access networksKeep in mind:bandwidth (bits per second) of access network?shared or dedicated?
14 Residential access: point to point access Dialup via modemup to 56Kbps direct access to router (often less)Can’t surf and phone at same time: can’t be “always on”ADSL: asymmetric digital subscriber lineup to 1 Mbps upstream (today typically < 256 kbps)up to 8 Mbps downstream (today typically < 1 Mbps)FDM: 50 kHz - 1 MHz for downstream4 kHz - 50 kHz for upstream0 kHz - 4 kHz for ordinary telephone
15 Residential access: cable modems HFC: hybrid fiber coaxasymmetric: up to 30Mbps downstream, 2 Mbps upstreamnetwork of cable and fiber attaches homes to ISP routerhomes share access to routerdeployment: available via cable TV companies
21 Company access: local area networks company/univ local area network (LAN) connects end system to edge routerEthernet:shared or dedicated link connects end system and router10 Mbs, 100Mbps, Gigabit EthernetLANs: chapter 5
22 Wireless access networks shared wireless access network connects end system to routervia base station aka “access point”wireless LANs:802.11b/g (WiFi): 11 or 54 Mbpswider-area wireless accessprovided by telco operator3G ~ 384 kbpsWill it happen??GPRS in Europe/USbasestationmobilehostsrouter
23 Home networks Typical home network components: ADSL or cable modem router/firewall/NATEthernetwireless accesspointwirelesslaptopsto/fromcableheadendcablemodemrouter/firewallwirelessaccesspointEthernet
24 Physical Media Twisted Pair (TP) two insulated copper wires Category 3: traditional phone wires, 10 Mbps EthernetCategory 5: 100Mbps EthernetBit: propagates between transmitter/rcvr pairsphysical link: what lies between transmitter & receiverguided media:signals propagate in solid media: copper, fiber, coaxunguided media:signals propagate freely, e.g., radio
25 Physical Media: coax, fiber Fiber optic cable:glass fiber carrying light pulses, each pulse a bithigh-speed operation:high-speed point-to-point transmission (e.g., 10’s-100’s Gps)low error rate: repeaters spaced far apart ; immune to electromagnetic noiseCoaxial cable:two concentric copper conductorsbidirectionalbaseband:single channel on cablelegacy Ethernetbroadband:multiple channels on cableHFC
26 Physical media: radio Radio link types: terrestrial microwavee.g. up to 45 Mbps channelsLAN (e.g., Wifi)11Mbps, 54 Mbpswide-area (e.g., cellular)e.g. 3G: hundreds of kbpssatelliteKbps to 45Mbps channel (or multiple smaller channels)270 msec end-end delaygeosynchronous versus low altitudesignal carried in electromagnetic spectrumno physical “wire”bidirectionalpropagation environment effects:reflectionobstruction by objectsinterference
27 Roadmap 1.1 What is the Internet? 1.2 Network edge 1.3 Network core 1.4 Network access and physical media1.5 Internet structure and ISPs1.6 Delay & loss in packet-switched networks1.7 Protocol layers, service models1.8 History
28 Internet structure: network of networks roughly hierarchicalat center: “tier-1” ISPs (e.g., MCI, Sprint, AT&T, Cable and Wireless), national/international coveragetreat each other as equalsNAPTier-1 providers also interconnect at public network access points (NAPs)Tier 1 ISPTier-1 providers interconnect (peer) privatelyTier 1 ISPTier 1 ISP
30 Internet structure: network of networks “Tier-2” ISPs: smaller (often regional) ISPsConnect to one or more tier-1 ISPs, possibly other tier-2 ISPsTier-2 ISPs also peer privately with each other, interconnect at NAPTier-2 ISPTier-2 ISP pays tier-1 ISP for connectivity to rest of Internettier-2 ISP is customer oftier-1 providerTier 1 ISPNAPTier 1 ISPTier 1 ISP
31 Internet structure: network of networks “Tier-3” ISPs and local ISPslast hop (“access”) network (closest to end systems)localISPTier 3Local and tier- 3 ISPs are customers ofhigher tier ISPsconnecting them to rest of InternetTier-2 ISPTier 1 ISPNAPTier 1 ISPTier 1 ISP
32 Internet structure: network of networks a packet passes through many networks!localISPTier 3ISPlocalISPlocalISPlocalISPTier-2 ISPTier 1 ISPNAPTier 1 ISPTier 1 ISPlocalISPlocalISPlocalISPlocalISP
33 Chapter 1: roadmap 1.1 What is the Internet? 1.2 Network edge 1.3 Network core1.4 Network access and physical media1.5 Internet structure and ISPs1.6 Delay & loss in packet-switched networks1.7 Protocol layers, service models1.8 History
34 How do loss and delay occur? packets queue in router bufferspacket arrival rate to link exceeds output link capacitypackets queue, wait for turnpacket being transmitted (delay)Afree (available) buffers: arriving packetsdropped (loss) if no free bufferspackets queueing (delay)B
35 Four sources of packet delay 1. nodal processing:check bit errorsdetermine output link2. queueingtime waiting at output link for transmissiondepends on congestion level of routerABpropagationtransmissionnodalprocessingqueueing
36 Delay in packet-switched networks 3. Transmission delay:R=link bandwidth (bps)L=packet length (bits)time to send bits into link = L/R4. Propagation delay:d = length of physical links = propagation speed in medium (~2x108 m/sec)propagation delay = d/sNote: s and R are very different quantities!ABpropagationtransmissionnodalprocessingqueueing
37 Caravan analogytollboothtollbooth100 km100 kmten-carcaravanCars “propagate” at 100 km/hrToll booth takes 12 sec to service a car (transmission time)car~bit; caravan ~ packetQ: How long until caravan is lined up before 2nd toll booth?Time to “push” entire caravan through toll booth onto highway = 12*10 = 120 secTime for last car to propagate from 1st to 2nd toll both: 100km/(100km/hr)= 1 hrA: 62 minutes
38 Caravan analogy (more) tollboothtollbooth100 km100 kmten-carcaravanYes! After 7 min, 1st car at 2nd booth and 3 cars still at 1st booth.1st bit of packet can arrive at 2nd router before packet is fully transmitted at 1st router!See Ethernet applet at AWL Web siteCars now “propagate” at km/hrToll booth now takes 1 min to service a carQ: Will cars arrive to 2nd booth before all cars serviced at 1st booth?
39 Nodal delay dproc = processing delay dqueue = queuing delay typically a few microsecs or lessdqueue = queuing delaydepends on congestiondtrans = transmission delay= L/R, significant for low-speed linksdprop = propagation delaya few microsecs to hundreds of msecs
40 Queueing delay (revisited) R=link bandwidth (bps)L=packet length (bits)a=average packet arrival ratetraffic intensity = La/RLa/R ~ 0: average queueing delay smallLa/R -> 1: delays become largeLa/R > 1: more “work” arriving than can be serviced, average delay infinite!
41 “Real” Internet delays and routes What do “real” Internet delay & loss look like?Traceroute program: provides delay measurement from source to router along end-end Internet path towards destination. For all i:sends three packets that will reach router i on path towards destinationrouter i will return packets to sendersender times interval between transmission and reply.3 probes3 probes3 probes
42 “Real” Internet delays and routes traceroute: gaia.cs.umass.edu toThree delay measurements fromgaia.cs.umass.edu to cs-gw.cs.umass.edu1 cs-gw ( ) 1 ms 1 ms 2 ms2 border1-rt-fa5-1-0.gw.umass.edu ( ) 1 ms 1 ms 2 ms3 cht-vbns.gw.umass.edu ( ) 6 ms 5 ms 5 ms4 jn1-at wor.vbns.net ( ) 16 ms 11 ms 13 ms5 jn1-so wae.vbns.net ( ) 21 ms 18 ms 18 ms6 abilene-vbns.abilene.ucaid.edu ( ) 22 ms 18 ms 22 ms7 nycm-wash.abilene.ucaid.edu ( ) 22 ms 22 ms 22 ms( ) 104 ms 109 ms 106 ms9 de2-1.de1.de.geant.net ( ) 109 ms 102 ms 104 ms10 de.fr1.fr.geant.net ( ) 113 ms 121 ms 114 ms11 renater-gw.fr1.fr.geant.net ( ) 112 ms 114 ms 112 ms12 nio-n2.cssi.renater.fr ( ) 111 ms 114 ms 116 ms13 nice.cssi.renater.fr ( ) 123 ms 125 ms 124 ms14 r3t2-nice.cssi.renater.fr ( ) 126 ms 126 ms 124 ms15 eurecom-valbonne.r3t2.ft.net ( ) 135 ms 128 ms 133 ms( ) 126 ms 128 ms 126 ms17 * * *18 * * *19 fantasia.eurecom.fr ( ) 132 ms 128 ms 136 mstrans-oceaniclink* means no response (probe lost, router not replying)
43 Packet lossqueue (aka buffer) preceding link in buffer has finite capacitywhen packet arrives to full queue, packet is dropped (aka lost)lost packet may be retransmitted by previous node, by source end system, or not retransmitted at all