4 Substantive Tests of Details of Account Balances LO# 1Substantive Tests of Details of Account BalancesThe statistical concepts we discussed in the last chapter apply to this chapter as well. Three important determinants of sample size areDesired confidence level.Tolerable misstatement.Estimated misstatement.Population plays a bigger role in some of the sampling techniques used for substantive testing.Misstatements discovered in the audit sample must be projected to the population, and there must be an allowance for sampling risk.
5 Substantive Tests of Details of Account Balances LO# 1Substantive Tests of Details of Account BalancesConsider the following information about the inventory account balance of an audit client:The ratio of misstatement in the sample is 2% ($2,000 ÷ $100,000)Applying the ratio to the entire population produces a best estimate of misstatement of inventory of $60,000. ($3,000,000 × 2%)
6 Substantive Tests of Details of Account Balances LO# 1Substantive Tests of Details of Account BalancesThe results of our audit test depend upon the tolerable misstatement associated with the inventory account. If the tolerable misstatement is $50,000, we cannot conclude that the account is fairly stated because our best estimate of the projected misstatement is greater than the tolerable misstatement.
7 Monetary-Unit Sampling (MUS) LO# 2Monetary-Unit Sampling (MUS)MUS uses attribute-sampling theory to express a conclusion in dollar amounts rather than as a rate of occurrence. It is commonly used by auditors to test accounts such as accounts receivable, loans receivable, investment securities, and inventory.
8 Monetary-Unit Sampling (MUS) LO# 2Monetary-Unit Sampling (MUS)MUS uses attribute-sampling theory (used primarily to test controls) to estimate the percentage of monetary units in a population that might be misstated and then multiplies this percentage by an estimate of how much the dollars are misstated.
9 Monetary-Unit Sampling (MUS) LO# 2Advantages of MUSWhen the auditor expects no misstatement, MUS usually results in a smaller sample size than classical variables sampling.The calculation of the sample size and evaluation of the sample results are not based on the variation between items in the population.When applied using the probability-proportional-to-size procedure, MUS automatically results in a stratified sample.
10 Monetary-Unit Sampling (MUS) LO# 2Monetary-Unit Sampling (MUS)Disadvantages of MUSThe selection of zero or negative balances generally requires special design consideration.The general approach to MUS assumes that the audited amount of the sample item is not in error by more than 100%.When more than one or two misstatements are detected, the sample results calculations may overstate the allowance for sampling risk.
12 Steps in MUS Sampling Sampling may be used for substantive testing to: LO# 2Steps in MUS SamplingSampling may be used for substantive testing to:Test the reasonableness of assertions about a financial statement amount (i.e., is the amount fairly stated). This is the most common use of sampling for substantive testing.Develop an estimate of some amount.
13 LO# 2Steps in MUS SamplingFor MUS the population is defined as the monetary value of an account balance, such as accounts receivable, investment securities, or inventory.
14 LO# 2Steps in MUS SamplingAn individual dollar represents the sampling unit.
15 LO# 2Steps in MUS SamplingA misstatement is defined as the difference between monetary amounts in the client’s records and amounts supported by audit evidence.
17 LO# 2Steps in MUS SamplingThe auditor selects a sample for MUS by using a systematic selection approach called probability-proportional-to-size selection. The sampling interval can be determined by dividing the book value of the population by the sample size. Each individual dollar in the population has an equal chance of being selected and items or “logical units” greater than the interval will always be selected.
18 LO# 3Steps in MUS SamplingAssume a client’s book value of accounts receivable is $2,500,000, and the auditor determined a sample size of 93. The sampling interval will be $26,882 ($2,500,000 ÷ 93). The random number selected is $3,977 the auditor would select the following items for testing:
19 LO# 3Steps in MUS SamplingAfter the sample items have been selected, the auditor conducts the planned audit procedures on the logical units containing the selected dollar sampling units.
20 LO# 3Steps in MUS SamplingThe misstatements detected in the sample must be projected to the population.
21 LO# 3Steps in MUS SamplingBasic Precision using the Tables If no misstatements are found in the sample, the best estimate of the population misstatement would be zero dollars.$26,882 × 3.0 = $80,646 upper misstatement limit
22 LO# 3Steps in MUS SamplingMisstatements Detected In the sample of 93 items, the following misstatements were found:Because the Axa balance of $32,549 is greater than the interval of $26,882, no sampling risk is added. Since all the dollars in the large accounts are audited, there is no sampling risk associated with large accounts.$3,284 ÷ $21,893 = 15%
23 LO# 3Steps in MUS SamplingComputed Upper Misstatement Limit using Tables We compute the upper misstatement limit by calculating basic precision and ranking the detected misstatements based on the size of the tainting factor from the largest to the smallest.(0.15 × $26,882 × 1.4 = $5,645)
24 LO# 3Steps in MUS SamplingIn our example, the final decision is whether the accounts receivable balance is materially misstated or not.We compare the tolerable misstatement to the upper misstatement limit. If the upper misstatement limit is less than or equal to the tolerable misstatement, we conclude that the balance is not materially misstated.
25 LO# 3Steps in MUS SamplingIn our example, the upper misstatement limit of $150,621 is greater than the tolerable misstatement of $125,000, so the auditor concludes that the accounts receivable balance is materially misstated.When faced with this situation, the auditor may:Increase the sample size.Perform other substantive procedures.Request the client adjust the accounts receivable balance.If the client refuses to adjust the account balance, the auditor would consider issuing a qualified or adverse opinion.
26 Risk When Evaluating Account Balances LO# 3Risk When Evaluating Account Balances
27 LO# 3Why is the Sampling Interval Rather than the Sample Size Used in Evaluating MUS Results?Due to simplifying assumptions about accounting populations, the misstatement factors used in most MUS evaluation approaches are nearly identical to the misstatement factors associated with a sample size of 100, regardless of the actual sample size used by the auditor. Always use these factors:
28 Effect of Understatement Misstatements LO# 3Effect of Understatement MisstatementsMUS is not particularly effective at detecting understatements. An understated account is less likely to be selected than an overstated account.The most likely error will be reduced by $2,688 (– 0.10 × $26,882)
29 Nonstatistical Sampling for Tests of Account Balances LO# 4Nonstatistical Sampling for Tests of Account BalancesThe sampling unit for nonstatistical sampling is normally a customer account, an individual transaction, or a line item on a transactions. When using nonstatistical sampling, the following items must be considered:Identifying individually significant items.Determining the sample size.Selecting sample items.Calculating the sample results.
30 Identifying Individually Significant Items LO# 4Identifying Individually Significant ItemsThe items to be tested individually are items that may contain potential misstatements that individually exceed the tolerable misstatement. These items are tested 100% because the auditor is not willing to accept any sampling risk.
31 Determining the Sample Size LO# 4Determining the Sample SizeSample SizeSampling Population book value Tolerable – Expected misstatement=× Assurance factor
32 Selecting Sample Items LO# 4Selecting Sample ItemsAuditing standards require that the sample items be selected in such a way that the sample can be expected to represent the population.
33 Calculating the Sample Results LO# 4Calculating the Sample ResultsOne way of projecting the sampling results to the population is to apply the misstatement ratio in the sample to the population.Assume the auditor finds $1,500 in misstatements in a sample of $15,000. The misstatement ratio is 10%.If the population total is $200,000, the projected misstatement would be $20,000 ($200,000 × 10%)
34 Calculating the Sample Results LO# 4Calculating the Sample ResultsA second method is the difference estimation. This method projects the average misstatement of each item in the sample to all items in the population.Assume misstatements in a sample of 100 items total $300 (for average misstatement of $3), and the population contains 10,000 items.The projected misstatement would be $30,000 ($3 × 10,000).
35 Nonstatistical Sampling Example LO# 4Nonstatistical Sampling ExampleThe auditor’s of Calabro Wireless Service have decided to use nonstatistical sampling to examine the accounts receivable balance. Calabro has a total of 11, ( ,535) accounts with a balance of $3,717,900. The auditor’s stratify the accounts as follows:
36 Nonstatistical Sampling Example LO# 4Nonstatistical Sampling ExampleThe auditor’s decide . . .There is a low assessment for inherent and control risk.The tolerable misstatement is $40,000, and the expected misstatement is $15,000.There is a moderate risk that other auditing procedures will fail to detect material misstatements.All customer account balances greater than $25,000 are to be audited.
37 Nonstatistical Sampling Example LO# 4Nonstatistical Sampling ExampleSample SizeSampling population book value Tolerable - Estimated misstatement=× Assurance factor$3,717,900 – $550,000Sample Size=$3,167,900 $40,000× 1.2 = 95 (rounded)$55,000 – $15,000
38 Nonstatistical Sampling Example LO# 4Nonstatistical Sampling ExampleThe auditor sent positive confirmations to each of the 110 ( ) accounts selected. Either the confirmations were returned or alternative procedures were successfully used. Four customers indicated that their accounts were overstated and the auditors determined that the misstatements were the result of unintentional error by client personnel. Here are the results of the audit testing:
39 Nonstatistical Sampling Example LO# 4Nonstatistical Sampling ExampleAs a result of the audit procedures, the following projected misstatement was prepared:The total projected misstatement of $10,800 is less than the expected misstatement of $15,000, so the auditors may conclude that there is an acceptably low risk that the true misstatement exceeds the tolerable misstatement.
40 Why Did Statistical Sampling Fall Out Of Favor? Firms found that some auditors were over relying on statistical sampling techniques to the exclusion of good judgment.There appears to be poor linkage between the applied audit setting and traditional statistical sampling applications.
41 Classical Variable Sampling LO# 5Classical Variable SamplingClassical variables sampling uses normal distribution theory to evaluate the characteristics of a population based on sample data. Auditors most commonly use classical variables sampling to estimate the size of misstatement.Sampling distributions are formed by plotting the projected misstatements yielded by an infinite number of audit samples of the same size taken from the same underlying population.
42 Classical Variables Sampling LO# 5Classical Variables SamplingA sampling distribution is useful because it allows us to estimate the probability of observing any single sample result.
43 Classical Variables Sampling LO# 5Classical Variables SamplingIn classical variables sampling, the sample mean is the best estimate of the population mean.
44 Classical Variables Sampling LO# 5Classical Variables SamplingAdvantagesWhen the auditor expects a large number of differences between book and audited values, this method will result in smaller sample size than MUS.The techniques are effective for both overstatements and understatements.The selection of zero balances generally does not require special sample design considerations.
45 Classical Variables Sampling LO# 5Classical Variables SamplingDisadvantagesDoes not work well when little or not misstatement is expected in the population.To determine sample size, the auditor must estimate the standard deviation of the audited value or differences.If few misstatements are detected in the sample data, the true variance tends to be underestimated, and the resulting projection of the misstatements to the population is likely not to be reliable.