Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER XXXIII NEGOTIATION OF SHIPPING DOCUMENTS"— Presentation transcript:
1 CHAPTER XXXIII NEGOTIATION OF SHIPPING DOCUMENTS Instructions for Opening a Letter of CreditExamination of a Letter of CreditCommon DiscrepanciesNegotiation with DiscrepanciesDocuments for NegotiationPresentation of Documents
2 NegotiationNegotiation means the purchase by the nominated (negotiating) bank of drafts and shipping documents under a complying presentation by advancing or agreeing to advance funds to the beneficiaryAn exporter presents a draft (a bill of exchange) and shipping documents specified in the letter of credit to a nominated bank or any bank if there is no nominated bank, which becomes a negotiating bank, to get paid.
3 Instructions for Opening a Letter of Credit Items usually included in the instructions to open an L/C.(1) An Irrevocable letter of credit subject to the UCP of the latest version; UCP No. 600 (2007 Revision)(2) Whether the L/C is to be confirmed by a U.S. bank or not.(3) The name and address of the beneficiary: in favor of exporter.(4) Whether the L/C is to be transferable or not(5) Terms of payment such as at sight or usance(6) Where negotiation or payment is to be effected
4 Instructions for Opening a Letter of Credit (7) Whether the payment is to be made in U.S. dollars or other foreign currency(8) What trade terms are to be used: FOB, CFR or CIF?(9) Coverage of marine insurance: Institute CargoClauses (A) (Similar to All Risks), (B) (Similar to WA), (C) (Similar to FPA), or any special coverage such as a rejection clause(10) Documents to be required for negotiation Commercial invoice Packing list Marine insurance policy or certificate Ocean bill of lading Other documents specified in the L/C
5 Instructions for Opening a Letter of Credit (11) Whether partial shipments are allowed or not(12) Whether transshipments are allowed or prohibited(13) Presentation period/date: A period of time for presentation of documents after shipment(14) Ports of loading and unloading(15) The latest shipment date(16) The expiry date
6 Examination of a Letter of Credit When a letter of credit is received, exporter must:(1)Examine the conditions and documents specified in the L/C and determine whether he can meet them or not.(2) If there are any conditions he cannot meet, request his buyer to amend the L/C asap before he starts manufacturing export goods.(3) If the L/C calls for a time draft, have the L/C specify that the discount interest for the time draft shall be for account of accountee (importer), when agreement was a sight draft but L/C is opened with a time draft(4) Exporter should hold off shipping the order until he receives an amendments to the L/C as requested.
7 Common Discrepancies (1) Drafts A discrepancy: any inconsistence or difference from the terms and conditions stipulated in the letter of credit in minute details.(1) DraftsDraft amount is different from invoiceDraft tenor is different from the L/CWrong drawee
8 Common Discrepancies (2) Commercial invoices Different merchandise description from the L/CInvoices is not issued by the beneficiaryInsufficient copies are presentedIncorrect accountee's name and address are statedDifferent prices from the L/CTerms of trade such as FOB, CFR or CIF different from the L/C
9 Common Discrepancies (2) Commercial invoices (continued) Marks and numbers of packages are different from all other documentsWeight is different from the L/CDifferent currency from the L/C
10 Common Discrepancies (3) Packing list Different description of merchandise from the L/CDifferent number of unit, net weight and gross weight from the L/C
11 Common Discrepancies (4) Ocean Bill of Lading Less than a full set of original B/L is presentedThe B/L not properly endorsedThe B/L not marked with "On Board“ notation with shipment date and actual vessel name, if B/L contains the indication “intended vessel”The B/L not properly consigned.In the case of CFR or CIF, the term "Freight Prepaid" is not marked, that is, no indication of freight prepaid by the exporterMerchandise description is different from the L/C
12 Common Discrepancies (4) Ocean Bill of Lading (continued) Different ports of loading and/or unloading from the L/CNotations on the B/L that the merchandise or packages are damagedThe B/L indicates the "On Deck" shipmentStale B/L : Not presented within time limit after shipment as stipulated in the L/C : within ____ days after date of issuance of bills of ladingLate shipment: The bill of lading date marked later than the shipment date specified in the L/C
13 Common Discrepancies (5) Marine Cargo Insurance Certificate or Policy Different coverage from the L/CInsufficient coverageNot the same currency as the L/CDifferent merchandise descriptionThe effective date later than the shipment dateBroker's cover note presented instead of insurance certificate or policy
14 Common Discrepancies (6) Other discrepancies Not all documents required in L/C are presentedDocuments are presented after the expiry date of the L/C
15 Negotiation with Discrepancies In case discrepancies are found by negotiating bank, exporter must correct the discrepancies.If exporter cannot correct them such as the shipment date, then exporter shouldrequest the issuing bank to amend the letter of credit to cover discrepancies or authorize to pay in spite of discrepanciesAt the same time, inform the buyer of the discrepancies and request his acceptance and amendment to the Letter of Credit.Release shipping documents to issuing bank after the L/C is amended. Buyer’s acceptance of discrepancies are not enough. The Letter of Credit must be amended.Do not send the shipping documents to the issuing bank of the Letter of Credit on a collection basis.
16 Documents for Negotiation Depend on the stipulation in the letter of credit.Exporter must present all documents specified in the letter of credit for negotiation.Any missing document or incorrect document becomes a discrepancy.Issuing bank of the L/C has under no circumstances an obligation to honor the draft and shipping documents with discrepancies.
17 Documents for Negotiation Common documents used in the international trade accompanying exporter’s Draft (Bill of Exchange)(1) Commercial Invoice(2) Packing List(3) Ocean Bill of Lading(4) Marine Insurance Certificate(5) Any other documents if required by the L/CCertificate of Country of Origin (Certificate of Origin)Consular InvoiceInspection CertificateBeneficiary's Statement
18 Presentation of Documents Draft and all shipping documents must be presented to a negotiating bank together with the original letter of credit.Presentation must be made within a specified period of time after shipment in the L/C, but not later than 21 days after shipmentA bank must determine whether or not presentation is a complying presentation in 5 banking days
19 Presentation of Documents If a nominated (negotiating) bank, a confirming bank, if any, or the issuing bank determines that a presentation does not comply,it may refuse to honor or negotiate, thenit must give a single notice to presenter no later than the close of the 5th banking days.
20 Presentation of Documents The notice must stateThe bank is refusing to honor or negotiateEach discrepancyThe bank’s disposal of shipping documents:The bank is holding documents pending instructions from the presenter orThe issuing bank is holding documents until it receives a waiver from the applicant & agrees to accept it orThe bank is returning documents orThe bank is acting according to the previous instructions from the presenter.
21 Presentation of Documents If a bank does not follow these negotiation and notice provisions,The bank cannot claim that the documents do not constitute a complying presentation.The bank must honor or negotiate.A document presented but not required by the Credit will be disregarded.If a Credit contains a condition without stipulating the document to indicate compliance with the condition,Banks will deem such condition not stated and will disregard it.