6 Organization (Cont.) Contralateral control: The left hemisphere controls the right side of the body.The right hemisphere controls the left side of the body.Sensory information from one side of the body is interpreted by the opposite brain hemisphere.Some brain functions are localized to a hemisphere.
8 Localization of Language Aphasia – a difficulty of language caused by brain injury (such as with stroke).Broca – described patients who can understand language but not speak.Results from damage to Broca’s area.Wernicke – described patients who can speak but not understand language.Results from damage to Wernicke’s area.
9 A Language CircuitWernicke’s areas and Broca’s areas are part of a connected circuit for receiving and producing language.Wernicke predicted conduction aphasia – a disorder produced by breaking the connection between the two regions.Results in paraphasia – omitting and substituting parts of speech. Also, inability to repeat phrases.
10 Brodmann AreasDifferent areas of the brain with different functions have different kinds of neurons.Brodmann mapped the areas based on the kinds of cells found:Cytoarchitectonic method52 functionally distinct areas identified by number.
11 Evolution and Neuroscience Darwin’s theory of natural selection states that modern species of organisms evolved from a common ancestor.Animal models can be used because there are important similarities with humans.Specialization for an environmental niche means there are also important differences.Today animal welfare is closely monitored.
13 Levels of AnalysisThe reductionist approach breaks the brain into smaller pieces for study:Molecular -- what molecules doCellular – how molecules work together in cellSystems (vision, motor) – circuits that perform a common functionBehavioral – how systems work together to produce integrated behaviorsCognitive – neural mechanisms of mental activity
14 Understanding Disorders An important goal of neuroscience is finding treatment, prevention, or cure for serious disorders:Alzheimer’s disease -- dementiaParkinson’s disease –voluntary motor movementDepression – 30,000 suicides per yearSchizophrenia – disrupts cognition, personalityStrokeAlcohol & drug addiction