3 Answer KeyArrests for violent crimes comes from UCR The number of persons arrested for homicide, forcible rape, robbery and aggravated assault as reported by law enforcement agencies to the FBICrimes recorded by the police comes from UCR The number of homicides, forcible rapes, robberies, and aggravated assaults included in the Uniform Crime Reports of the FBI
4 Answer KeyVictimizations reported to the police comes from UCR+NCVS The number of homicides – from UCR The number of rapes, robberies, and aggravated assaults – from NCVS (victims said whether they reported to the police)Total serious violent crime comes from UCR+NCVS The number of homicides – from UCR The number of rapes, robberies, and aggravated assaults – from NCVS whether or not they were reported to the police.
5 Self-reportsThe basic approach of the self-report method is to ask individuals if they have engaged in delinquent or criminal behavior, and if so, how often they have done so.
6 Self-reports data Created to complement UCR and NCVS Started in 1950s to tap “hidden delinquency”Ask individuals if they have engaged indelinquent or criminal behavior, and if so, how often they have done so
7 Types of self-reportsLongitudinal surveys: Such reports can be obtained from the same group of people over a long period of timeCross-sectional surveys: can be obtained from different groups of people at the same point in time
8 Self-reportsMost youths involved in violent crimes are never arrested for a violent crime (Elliott et al., 1989; Loeber et al., 1998; Huizinga et al., 1995)Thus, arrests seriously underestimate the volume of violent crime and fail to distinguish accurately between those who are and are not involved in violence
9 Austin Porterfield (1943)The first published results from a self-reportHe analyzed the juvenile court records of 2,049 delinquents (Texas) and identified 55 offenses for which they had been adjudicatedSurveyed 437 students from three colleges in northern Texas to determine if and how frequently they had committed any of the 55 offensesEvery one of the college students had committed at least one of these offenses
10 Austin Porterfield (1943)The offenses committed by the college students were as serious as those committed by the adjudicated delinquents (although not as frequent), yet few of the college students had come into contact with legal authorities
11 Wallerstein and Wylie (1947) Sampled a group of 1,698 adult men and women and examined self-reports of their delinquent behavior committed before the age of 16They mailed questionnaires containing 49 offenses to their sampleAlmost all reported committing at least one delinquent act included on their checklist
12 Potential of self-reports By including questions about other aspects of adolescent life with a delinquency scale in the same questionnaire, researchers could explore etiological issues of delinquencyTheoretically interesting issues concerning the family, peers, and school
13 Samples for self-reports Adult inmates of jails and prisonsAdolescents, usually high school studentsThe results of most self-report studies are shocking- for any population (even a law-abiding one), about 90% of the people in the sample have committed a crime (for which the punishment is more than a year in prison)Middle-class youth commit as much crime as working-class youth
14 Violent offending by race.. Self-reports and arrest rates provide different pictures of violent offending by raceSelf-reports reveal small differences between African American and white youthsArrest records, on the other hand, reveal large differences ( nine African American youths were arrested for every white youth in 2003)
15 Explanations for this discrepancy Selective reporting of offenses to the policeDifferent patterns of police surveillanceRacial/ethnic biases on the part of police, victims, and witnesses (Austin & Allen, 2000; Sampson & Lauritsen, 1997).
16 Assessment of self-report studies Focus on minor and trivial offenses (truancy, running away from home, minor drug and alcohol use)Although recent studies (NYS) asked subjects about rape and robberyRespondents might not to tell the truth (reliability issues)
17 If respondents lie….Self-report data can be checked against police records, school records, interviews with teachers and parentsThe use of, or threat of, polygraph validation (20% change their initial responses when threatened with a “lie detector”)Subsequent interviewing of subjects permits probing regarding the details and context of actsUse of “lie scales”
18 Example of lie scale I always tell the truth Sometimes I tell lies Once in a while I get angryI never feel sadSometimes I do things I am not supposed to doI have never taken anything that did not belong to me
19 Assessment of self-report studies Several self-report studies included only boys (no female offending data)Overestimation of some crimesIgnore white collar crimes and serious violent crimes
20 UCR, NCVS, and self-reports None of the three is perfectFor the best estimates of the actual number of crimes, NCVS data are preferableFor the best estimates of offender characteristics, self-reports and NCVS are preferableUCR are superior for understanding the geographical distribution of crime